~ What Is Nuclear Factor-Kappa Beta? Part 3


1. Ahn KS, Aggarwal BB. Transcription Factor NF-{kappa}B: A Sensor for Smoke and Stress Signals. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Nov;1056:218-33.

2. Orozco G, Sanchez E, Collado MD, et al. Analysis of the functional NFKB1 promoter polymorphism in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Tissue Antigens. 2005 Feb;65(2):183-6.

3. Sato Y, Kato J, Takimoto R, et al. Hepatitis C virus core protein promotes proliferation of human hepatoma cells through enhancement of transforming growth factor-{alpha} expression via activation of NF-{kappa}B. Gut. 2006 Mar 31;[Epub ahead of print].

4. Di Sabatino A, Morera R, Ciccocioppo R, et al. Oral butyrate for mildly to moderately active Crohn’s disease. Alimen Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Nov 1;22(9):789-94.

5. Kawano S, Kubota T, Monden Y, et al. Blockade of NF-{kappa}B improves cardiac function and survival after myocardial infarction. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006 Apr 21;[Epub ahead of print].

6. Uzzo RG, Crispen PL, Golovine K, Makhov P, Horwitz EM, Kolenko VM. Diverse effects of zinc on NF-{kappa}B and AP-1 transcription factors: implications for prostate cancer progression. Carcinogenesis. 2006 Apr 10;[Epub ahead of print].

7. Sriwijitikamol A, Christ-Roberts C, Berria R, et al. Reduced skeletal muscle inhibitor of kappaB content is associated with insulin resistance in subjects with type 2 diabetes: reversal by exercise training. Diabetes. 2006 Mar;55(3):760-7.

8. Karin M, Greten FR. NF-kappaB: linking inflammation and immunity to cancer development and progression. Nat Rev Immunol. 2005 Oct;5(10):749-59.

9. Steinbach G, Lynch PM, Phillips RK, et al. The effect of celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, in familial adenomatous polyposis. N Engl J Med. 2000 Jun 29;342(26):1946-52.

10. Bresalier RS, Sandler RS, Quan H, et al. Cardiovascular events associated with rofecoxib in a colorectal adenoma chemoprevention trial. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 17;352(11):1092-102.

11. Solomon SD, McMurray JJ, Pfeffer MA, et al. Cardiovascular risk associated with celecoxib in a clinical trial for colorectal adenoma prevention. N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 17;352(11):1071-80.

12. Karin M, Yamamoto Y, Wang QM. The IKK NF-kappa B system: a treasure trove for drug development. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2004 Jan;3(1):17-26.

13. Li Q, Verma IM. NF-kappaB regulation in the immune system. Nat Rev Immunol. 2002 Oct;2(10):725-34.

14. Karin M, Cao Y, Greten FR, Li ZW. NF-kappaB in cancer: from innocent bystander to major culprit. Nat Rev Cancer. 2002 Apr;2(4):301-10.

15. Maeda S, Kamata H, Luo JL, Leffert H, Karin M. IKKbeta couples hepatocyte death to cytokine-driven compensatory proliferation that promotes chemical hepatocarcinogenesis. Cell. 2005 Jul 1;121(7):977-90.

16. Kamata H, Honda S, Maeda S, et al. Reactive oxygen species promote TNFalpha-induced death and sustained JNK activation by inhibiting MAP kinase phosphatases. Cell. 2005 Mar 11;120(5):649-61.

17. Vakkila J, Lotze MT. Inflammation and necrosis promote tumour growth. Nat Rev Immunol. 2004 Aug;4(8):641-8.

18. Becker C, Fantini MC, Schramm C, et al. TGF-beta suppresses tumor progression in colon cancer by inhibition of IL-6 trans-signaling. Immunity. 2004 Oct;21(4):491-501.

19. Greten FR, Eckmann L, Greten TF, et al. IKKbeta links inflammation and tumorigenesis in a mouse model of colitis-associated cancer. Cell. 2004 Aug 6;118(3):285-96.

20. Grimble RF. Effect of antioxidative vitamins on immune function with clinical applications. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1997;67(5):312-20.

21. Lee JY, Je JH, Jung KJ, Yu BP, Chung HY. Induction of endothelial iNOS by 4-hydroxyhexenal through NF-kappaB activation. Free Radic Biol Med. 2004 Aug 15;37(4):539-48.

22. Majano PL, Garcia-Monzon C, Garcia-Trevijano ER, et al. S-Adenosylmethionine modulates inducible nitric oxide synthase gene expression in rat liver and isolated hepatocytes. J Hepatol. 2001 Dec;35(6):692-9.

23. Lee HA, Hughes DA. Alpha-lipoic acid modulates NF-kappaB activity in human monocytic cells by direct interaction with DNA. Exp Gerontol. 2002 Jan;37(2-3):401-10.

24. Prasad AS, Bao B, Beck FW, Kucuk O, Sarkar FH. Antioxidant effect of zinc in humans. Free Radic Biol Med. 2004 Oct 15;37(8):1182-90.

25. Zhao G, Etherton TD, Martin KR, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in THP-1 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Oct 28;336(3):909-17.

26. Jia Y, Turek JJ. Altered NF-kappaB gene expression and collagen formation induced by polyunsaturated fatty acids. J Nutr Biochem. 2005 Aug;16(8):500-6.

27. Li H, Ruan XZ, Powis SH, et al. EPA and DHA reduce LPS-induced inflammation responses in HK-2 cells: evidence for a PPAR-gamma-dependent mechanism. Kidney Int. 2005 Mar;67(3):867-74.

28. SanGiovanni JP, Chew EY. The role of omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in health and disease of the retina. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2005 Jan;24(1):87-138.

29. Dijsselbloem N, Vanden BW, De NA, Haegeman G. Soy isoflavone phyto-pharmaceuticals in interleukin-6 affections. Multi-purpose nutraceuticals at the crossroad of hormone replacement, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory therapy. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004 Sep 15;68(6):1171-85.

30. Kang JS, Yoon YD, Han MH, et al. Estrogen receptor-independent inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene expression by phytoestrogen equol is mediated by blocking nuclear factor-kappaB activation in mouse macrophages. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Dec 19;71(1-2):136-43.

31. Li Y, Ahmed F, Ali S, et al. Inactivation of nuclear factor kappaB by soy isoflavone genistein contributes to increased apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic agents in human cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2005 Aug 1;65(15):6934-42.

32. Valachovicova T, Slivova V, Bergman H, Shuherk J, Sliva D. Soy isoflavones suppress invasiveness of breast cancer cells by the inhibition of NF-kappaB/AP-1-dependent and -independent pathways. Int J Oncol. 2004 Nov;25(5):1389-95.

33. Jimi E, Ghosh S. Role of nuclear factor-kappaB in the immune system and bone. Immunol Rev. 2005 Dec;208:80-7.

34. Vina J, Borras C, Gambini J, Sastre J, Pallardo FV. Why females live longer than males? Importance of the upregulation of longevity-associated genes by oestrogenic compounds. FEBS Lett. 2005 May 9;579(12):2541-5.

35. Baum L, Ng A. Curcumin interaction with copper and iron suggests one possible mechanism of action in Alzheimer’s disease animal models. J Alzheimers Dis. 2004 Aug;6(4):367-77.

36. Holt PR, Katz S, Kirshoff R. Curcumin therapy in inflammatory bowel disease: a pilot study. Dig Dis Sci. 2005 Nov;50(11):2191-3.

37. Aggarwal BB, Shishodia S. Suppression of the nuclear factor-kappaB activation pathway by spice-derived phytochemicals: reasoning for seasoning. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1030:434-41.

38. Jian YT, Mai GF, Wang JD, et al. Preventive and therapeutic effects of NF-kappaB inhibitor curcumin in rats colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Mar 28;11(12):1747-52.

39. Salh B, Assi K, Templeman V, et al. Curcumin attenuates DNB-induced murine colitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Jul;285(1):G235-43.

40. Nanji AA, Jokelainen K, Tipoe GL, et al. Curcumin prevents alcohol-induced liver disease in rats by inhibiting the expression of NF-kappa B-dependent genes. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Feb;284(2):G321-7.

41. Leclercq IA, Farrell GC, Sempoux C, dela PA, Horsmans Y. Curcumin inhibits NF-kappaB activation and reduces the severity of experimental steatohepatitis in mice. J Hepatol. 2004 Dec;41(6):926-34.

42. Cole GM, Morihara T, Lim GP, et al. NSAID and Antioxidant Prevention of Alzheimer’s Disease: Lessons from In Vitro and Animal Models. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1035:68-84.

43. Kang G, Kong PJ, Yuh YJ, et al. Curcumin suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression by inhibiting activator protein 1 and nuclear factor kappab bindings in BV2 microglial cells. J Pharmacol Sci. 2004 Mar;94(3):325-8.

44. Witek-Zawada B, Koj A. Regulation of expression of stromyelysin-1 by proinflammatory cytokines in mouse brain astrocytes. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2003 Dec;54(4):489-96.

45. Yang F, Lim GP, Begum AN, et al. Curcumin inhibits formation of amyloid beta oligomers and fibrils, binds plaques, and reduces amyloid in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2005 Feb 18;280(7):5892-901.

46. Giri RK, Rajagopal V, Kalra VK. Curcumin, the active constituent of turmeric, inhibits amyloid peptide-induced cytochemokine gene expression and CCR5-mediated chemotaxis of THP-1 monocytes by modulating early growth response-1 transcription factor. J Neurochem. 2004 Dec;91(5):1199-210.

47. Shakibaei M, Schulze-Tanzil G, John T, Mobasheri A. Curcumin protects human chondrocytes from IL-l1beta-induced inhibition of collagen type II and beta1-integrin expression and activation of caspase-3: an immunomorphological study. Ann Anat. 2005 Nov;187(5-6):487-97.

48. Banerjee M, Tripathi LM, Srivastava VM, Puri A, Shukla R. Modulation of inflammatory mediators by ibuprofen and curcumin treatment during chronic inflammation in rat. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2003 May;25(2):213-24.

49. Lev-Ari S, Strier L, Kazanov D, et al. Curcumin synergistically potentiates the growth-inhibitory and pro-apoptotic effects of celecoxib in osteoarthritis synovial adherent cells. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2006 Feb;45(2):171-7.

50. Duvoix A, Blasius R, Delhalle S, et al. Chemopreventive and therapeutic effects of curcumin. Cancer Lett. 2005 Jun 8;223(2):181-90.

51. Aggarwal BB, Shishodia S, Takada Y, et al. Curcumin suppresses the paclitaxel-induced nuclear factor-kappaB pathway in breast cancer cells and inhibits lung metastasis of human breast cancer in nude mice. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Oct 15;11(20):7490-8.

52. Thomas RK, Sos ML, Zander T, et al. Inhibition of nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB despite lack of functional IkappaBalpha protein overcomes multiple defects in apoptosis signaling in human B-cell malignancies. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Nov 15;11(22):8186-94.

53. Aggarwal S, Ichikawa H, Takada Y, et al. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) down-regulates expression of cell proliferation and antiapoptotic and metastatic gene products through suppression of IkappaBalpha kinase and Akt activation. Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Jan;69(1):195-206.

54. Kim K, Ryu K, Ko Y, Park C. Effects of nuclear factor-kappaB inhibitors and its implication on natural killer T-cell lymphoma cells. Br J Haematol. 2005 Oct;131(1):59-66.

55. Baliga MS, Katiyar SK. Chemoprevention of photocarcinogenesis by selected dietary botanicals. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2006 Feb;5(2):243-53.

56. Bush JA, Cheung KJ, Jr., Li G. Curcumin induces apoptosis in human melanoma cells through a Fas receptor/caspase-8 pathway independent of p53. Exp Cell Res. 2001 Dec 10;271(2):305-14.

57. LoTempio MM, Veena MS, Steele HL, et al. Curcumin suppresses growth of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Oct 1;11(19 Pt 1):6994-7002.

58. Deeb D, Jiang H, Gao X, et al. Curcumin sensitizes prostate cancer cells to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand/Apo2L by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappaB through suppression of IkappaBalpha phosphorylation. Mol Cancer Ther. 2004 Jul;3(7):803-12.

59. Kumar AP, Garcia GE, Ghosh R, et al. 4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid methyl ester: a curcumin derivative targets Akt/NF kappa B cell survival signaling pathway: potential for prostate cancer management. Neoplasia. 2003 May;5(3):255-66.

60. Hong JH, Ahn KS, Bae E, Jeon SS, Choi HY. The effects of curcumin on the invasiveness of prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2006 Jan 3.

61. Ramachandran C, Rodriguez S, Ramachandran R, et al. Expression profiles of apoptotic genes induced by curcumin in human breast cancer and mammary epithelial cell lines. Anticancer Res. 2005 Sep;25(5):3293-302.

62. Divya CS, Pillai MR. Antitumor action of curcumin in human papillomavirus associated cells involves downregulation of viral oncogenes, prevention of NFkB and AP-1 translocation, and modulation of apoptosis. Mol Carcinog. 2006 May;45(5):320-32.

63. Plummer SM, Holloway KA, Manson MM, et al. Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase 2 expression in colon cells by the chemopreventive agent curcumin involves inhibition of NF-kappaB activation via the NIK/IKK signalling complex. Oncogene. 1999 Oct 28;18(44):6013-20.

64. Garcea G, Berry DP, Jones DJ, et al. Consumption of the putative chemopreventive agent curcumin by cancer patients: assessment of curcumin levels in the colorectum and their pharmacodynamic consequences. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Jan;14(1):120-5.

65. Chen A, Xu J, Johnson AC. Curcumin inhibits human colon cancer cell growth by suppressing gene expression of epidermal growth factor receptor through reducing the activity of the transcription factor Egr-1. Oncogene. 2006 Jan 12;25(2):278-87.

66. Jung EM, Lim JH, Lee TJ, et al. Curcumin sensitizes tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-induced apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-mediated upregulation of death receptor 5 (DR5). Carcinogenesis. 2005 Nov;26(11):1905-13.

67. Lev-Ari S, Strier L, Kazanov D, et al. Celecoxib and curcumin synergistically inhibit the growth of colorectal cancer cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2005 Sep 15;11(18):6738-44.

68. Shishodia S, Potdar P, Gairola CG, Aggarwal BB. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) down-regulates cigarette smoke-induced NF-kappaB activation through inhibition of IkappaBalpha kinase in human lung epithelial cells: correlation with suppression of COX-2, MMP-9 and cyclin D1. Carcinogenesis. 2003 Jul;24(7):1269-79.

69. Lee J, Im YH, Jung HH, et al. Curcumin inhibits interferon-alpha induced NF-kappaB and COX-2 in human A549 non-small cell lung cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Aug 26;334(2):313-8.

70. Radhakrishna PG, Srivastava AS, Hassanein TI, Chauhan DP, Carrier E. Induction of apoptosis in human lung cancer cells by curcumin. Cancer Lett. 2004 May 28;208(2):163-70.

71. Bharti AC, Donato N, Singh S, Aggarwal BB. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) down-regulates the constitutive activation of nuclear factor-kappa B and IkappaBalpha kinase in human multiple myeloma cells, leading to suppression of proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Blood. 2003 Feb 1;101(3):1053-62.

72. Han SS, Keum YS, Seo HJ, Surh YJ. Curcumin suppresses activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1 induced by phorbol ester in cultured human promyelocytic leukemia cells. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2002 May 31;35(3):337-42.

73. Tomita M, Kawakami H, Uchihara JN, et al. Curcumin (diferuloylmethane) inhibits constitutive active NF-kappaB, leading to suppression of cell growth of human T-cell leukemia virus type I-infected T-cell lines and primary adult T-cell leukemia cells. Int J Cancer. 2006 Feb 1;118(3):765-72.

74. Cheng AL, Hsu CH, Lin JK, et al. Phase I clinical trial of curcumin, a chemopreventive agent, in patients with high-risk or pre-malignant lesions. Anticancer Res. 2001 Jul;21(4B):2895-900.

75. Sharma RA, Euden SA, Platton SL, et al. Phase I clinical trial of oral curcumin: biomarkers of systemic activity and compliance. Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Oct 15;10(20):6847-54.

76. Wang ZY, Nixon DW. Licorice and cancer. Nutr Cancer. 2001;39(1):1-11.

77. Shibata S. A drug over the millennia: pharmacognosy, chemistry, and pharmacology of licorice. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2000 Oct;120(10):849-62.

78. Wang JY, Guo JS, Li H, Liu SL, Zern MA. Inhibitory effect of glycyrrhizin on NF-kappaB binding activity in CCl4- plus ethanol-induced liver cirrhosis in rats. Liver. 1998 Jun;18(3):180-5.

79. Kang OH, Kim JA, Choi YA, et al. Inhibition of interleukin-8 production in the human colonic epithelial cell line HT-29 by 18 beta-glycyrrhetinic acid. Int J Mol Med. 2005 Jun;15(6):981-5.

80. Kang JS, Yoon YD, Cho IJ, et al. Glabridin, an isoflavan from licorice root, inhibits inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression and improves survival of mice in experimental model of septic shock. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005 Mar;312(3):1187-94.

81. Lee YS, Kang YS, Lee JS, Nicolova S, Kim JA. Involvement of NADPH oxidase-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species in the apototic cell death by capsaicin in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Free Radic Res. 2004 Apr;38(4):405-12.

82. Chen CW, Lee ST, Wu WT, et al. Signal transduction for inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 induction by capsaicin and related analogs in macrophages. Br J Pharmacol. 2003 Nov;140(6):1077-87.

83. Kim CS, Kawada T, Kim BS, et al. Capsaicin exhibits anti-inflammatory property by inhibiting IkB-a degradation in LPS-stimulated peritoneal macrophages. Cell Signal. 2003 Mar;15(3):299-306.

84. Zhang J, Nagasaki M, Tanaka Y, Morikawa S. Capsaicin inhibits growth of adult T-cell leukemia cells. Leuk Res. 2003 Mar;27(3):275-83.

85. Patel PS, Yang S, Li A, Varney ML, Singh RK. Capsaicin regulates vascular endothelial cell growth factor expression by modulation of hypoxia inducing factor-1alpha in human malignant melanoma cells. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2002 Sep;128(9):461-8.

86. Murakami Y, Shoji M, Hirata A, et al. Dehydrodiisoeugenol, an isoeugenol dimer, inhibits lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nuclear factor kappa B activation and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophages. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2005 Feb 15;434(2):326-32.

87. Murakami Y, Shoji M, Hanazawa S, Tanaka S, Fujisawa S. Preventive effect of bis-eugenol, a eugenol ortho dimer, on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nuclear factor kappa B activation and inflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages. Biochem Pharmacol. 2003 Sep 15;66(6):1061-6.

88. Ozalp N, Saroglu I, Sonmez H. Evaluation of various root canal filling materials in primary molar pulpectomies: an in vivo study. Am J Dent. 2005 Dec;18(6):347-50.

89. Damle SG, Nadkarni UM. Calcium hydroxide and zinc oxide eugenol as root canal filling materials in primary molars: a comparative study. Aust Endod J. 2005 Dec;31(3):114-9.

90. Takada Y, Murakami A, Aggarwal BB. Zerumbone abolishes NF-kappaB and IkappaBalpha kinase activation leading to suppression of antiapoptotic and metastatic gene expression, upregulation of apoptosis, and downregulation of invasion. Oncogene. 2005 Oct 20;24(46):6957-69.

91. Kim SO, Kundu JK, Shin YK, et al. [6]-Gingerol inhibits COX-2 expression by blocking the activation of p38 MAP kinase and NF-kappaB in phorbol ester-stimulated mouse skin. Oncogene. 2005 Apr 7;24(15):2558-67.

92. Kim SO, Chun KS, Kundu JK, Surh YJ. Inhibitory effects of [6]-gingerol on PMA-induced COX-2 expression and activation of NF-kappaB and p38 MAPK in mouse skin. Biofactors. 2004;21(1-4):27-31.

93. Grzanna R, Lindmark L, Frondoza CG. Ginger—an herbal medicinal product with broad anti-inflammatory actions. J Med Food. 2005;8(2):125-32.

94. Huang TH, Yang Q, Harada M, et al. Pomegranate flower extract diminishes cardiac fibrosis in Zucker diabetic fatty rats: modulation of cardiac endothelin-1 and nuclear factor-kappaB pathways. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2005 Dec;46(6):856-62.

95. Hsu YL, Kuo PL, Lin CC. Proliferative inhibition, cell-cycle dysregulation, and induction of apoptosis by ursolic acid in human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells. Life Sci. 2004 Sep 24;75(19):2303-16.

96. Shishodia S, Majumdar S, Banerjee S, Aggarwal BB. Ursolic acid inhibits nuclear factor-kappaB activation induced by carcinogenic agents through suppression of IkappaBalpha kinase and p65 phosphorylation: correlation with down-regulation of cyclooxygenase 2, matrix metalloproteinase 9, and cyclin D1. Cancer Res. 2003 Aug 1;63(15):4375-83.

97. You HJ, Choi CY, Kim JY, et al. Ursolic acid enhances nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha production via nuclear factor-kappaB activation in the resting macrophages. FEBS Lett. 2001 Dec 7;509(2):156-60.

98. Suh N, Honda T, Finlay HJ, et al. Novel triterpenoids suppress inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) in mouse macrophages. Cancer Res. 1998 Feb 15;58(4):717-23.

99. Geng Z, Rong Y, Lau BH. S-allyl cysteine inhibits activation of nuclear factor kappa B in human T cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 1997;23(2):345-50.

100. Keiss HP, Dirsch VM, Hartung T, et al. Garlic (Allium sativum L.) modulates cytokine expression in lipopolysaccharide-activated human blood thereby inhibiting NF-kappaB activity. J Nutr. 2003 Jul;133(7):2171-5.

101. Ho SE, Ide N, Lau BH. S-allyl cysteine reduces oxidant load in cells involved in the atherogenic process. Phytomedicine. 2001 Jan;8(1):39-46.

102. Ide N, Lau BH. Garlic compounds minimize intracellular oxidative stress and inhibit nuclear factor-kappa b activation. J Nutr. 2001 Mar;131(3s):1020S-6S.

103. Bruck R, Aeed H, Brazovsky E, Noor T, Hershkoviz R. Allicin, the active component of garlic, prevents immune-mediated, concanavalin A-induced hepatic injury in mice. Liver Int. 2005 Jun;25(3):613-21.

104. Dirsch VM, Antlsperger DS, Hentze H, Vollmar AM. Ajoene, an experimental anti-leukemic drug: mechanism of cell death. Leukemia. 2002 Jan;16(1):74-83.

105. Afaq F, Malik A, Syed D, et al. Pomegranate fruit extract modulates UV-B-mediated phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and activation of nuclear factor kappa B in normal human epidermal keratinocytes paragraph sign. Photochem Photobiol. 2005 Jan;81(1):38-45.

106. Afaq F, Saleem M, Krueger CG, Reed JD, Mukhtar H. Anthocyanin- and hydrolyzable tannin-rich pomegranate fruit extract modulates MAPK and NF-kappaB pathways and inhibits skin tumorigenesis in CD-1 mice. Int J Cancer. 2005 Jan 20;113(3):423-33.

107. Ahmed S, Wang N, Hafeez BB, Cheruvu VK, Haqqi TM. Punica granatum L. extract inhibits IL-1beta-induced expression of matrix metalloproteinases by inhibiting the activation of MAP kinases and NF-kappaB in human chondrocytes in vitro. J Nutr. 2005 Sep;135(9):2096-102.

108. Schubert SY, Neeman I, Resnick N. A novel mechanism for the inhibition of NF-kappaB activation in vascular endothelial cells by natural antioxidants. FASEB J. 2002 Dec;16(14):1931-3.

109. Tzima E, Irani-Tehrani M, Kiosses WB, et al. A mechanosensory complex that mediates the endothelial cell response to fluid shear stress. Nature. 2005 Sep 15;437(7057):426-31.

Free Shipping in the Continental U.S. on Orders over $50
The statements made here have not been evaluated by the FDA. The foregoing statements are based upon sound and reliable studies, and are meant for informational purposes. Consult with your medical practitioner to determine the underlying cause of your symptoms. Please always check your purchase for possible allergins and correct dosage on the bottle before use.

While we work to ensure that product information is correct, on occasion manufacturers may alter their ingredient lists. Actual product packaging and materials may contain more and/or different information than that shown on our Web site. We recommend that you do not solely rely on the information presented and that you always read labels, warnings, and directions before using or consuming a product. For additional information about a product, please contact the manufacturer. Content on this site is for reference purposes and is not intended to substitute for advice given by a physician, pharmacist, or other licensed health-care professional. You should not use this information as self-diagnosis or for treating a health problem or disease. Contact your health-care provider immediately if you suspect that you have a medical problem. Information and statements regarding dietary supplements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition. Life Ex Online assumes no liability for inaccuracies or misstatements about products.