~ Restoring Brain Cell Function - References

References

1. Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al. Consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2003 Jul;60(7):940-6.

2. McCann JC, Ames BN. Is docosahexaenoic acid, an n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, required for development of normal brain function? An overview of evidence from cognitive and behavioral tests in humans and animals. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Aug;82(2):281-95.

3. Unpublished data, Enzymotec Ltd, Israel.

4. Horrocks LA, Yeo YK. Health benefits of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Pharmacol Res. 1999 Sep;40(3):211-25.

5. Greiner RS, Moriguchi T, Hutton A, Slotnick BM, Salem N, Jr. Rats with low levels of brain docosahexaenoic acid show impaired performance in olfactory-based and spatial learning tasks. Lipids. 1999;34 SupplS239-43.

6. Lim SY, Suzuki H. Intakes of dietary docosahexaenoic acid ethyl ester and egg phosphatidylcholine improve maze-learning ability in young and old mice. J Nutr. 2000 Jun;130(6):1629-32.

7. Lim S, Suzuki H. Changes in maze behavior of mice occur after sufficient accumulation of docosahexaenoic acid in brain. J Nutr. 2001 Feb;131(2):319-24.

8. Gamoh S, Hashimoto M, Hossain S, Masumura S. Chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid improves the performance of radial arm maze task in aged rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2001 Apr;28(4):266-70.

9. Kyle DJ, Schaefer E, Patton G, Beiser A. Low serum docosahexaenoic acid is a significant risk factor for Alzheimer’s dementia. Lipids. 1999;34 SupplS245.

10 Minami M, Kimura S, Endo T, et al. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid increases cerebral acetylcholine levels and improves passive avoidance performance in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 1997 Dec;58(4):1123-9.

11. Terano T, Fujishiro S, Ban T, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation improves the moderately severe dementia from thrombotic cerebrovascular diseases. Lipids. 1999;34 SupplS345-6.

12. Delwaide PJ, Gyselynck-Mambourg AM, Hurlet A, Ylieff M. Double-blind randomized controlled study of phosphatidylserine in senile demented patients. Acta Neurol Scand. 1986 Feb;73(2):136-40.

13. Crook T, Petrie W, Wells C, Massari DC. Effects of phosphatidylserine in Alzheimer’s disease. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1992;28(1):61-6.

14. Cenacchi T, Bertoldin T, Farina C, Fiori MG, Crepaldi G. Cognitive decline in the elderly: a double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter study on efficacy of phosphatidylserine administration. Aging (Milano.). 1993 Apr;5(2):123-33.

15. Klinkhammer P, Szelies B, Heiss W. Effect of phosphatidylserine on cerebral glucose metabolism in Alzheimer’s disease. Dementia. 1990;1:197-201.

16. Kim HY, Bigelow J, Kevala JH. Substrate preference in phosphatidylserine biosynthesis for docosahexaenoic acid containing species. Biochemistry. 2004 Feb 3;43(4):1030-6.

17. Kidd PM. Neurodegeneration from mitochondrial insufficiency: nutrients, stem cells, growth factors, and prospects for brain rebuilding using integrative management. Altern Med Rev. 2005 Dec;10(4):268-93.

18. Lukiw WJ, Cui JG, Marcheselli VL, et al. A role for docosahexaenoic acid-derived neuroprotectin D1 in neural cell survival and Alzheimer disease. J Clin Invest. 2005 Oct;115(10):2774-83.

19. Akbar M, Calderon F, Wen Z, Kim HY. Docosahexaenoic acid: a positive modulator of Akt signaling in neuronal survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2005 Aug 2;102(31):10858-63.

20. Kidd P. Phosphatidylserine: Nature’s Brain Booster for Memory, Mood, and Stress. St. George: Total Health Communications, Inc.; 2005.

21. Available at:http://vitanetonline.com/ forums/1/Thread/359#Message388. Accessed March 1, 2006.

22. De Jesus Moreno MM. Cognitive improvement in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s dementia after treatment with the acetylcholine precursor choline alfoscerate: a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Ther. 2003 Jan;25(1):178-93.

23. Mandat T, Wilk A, Manowiec R, et al. Preliminary evaluation of risk and effectiveness of early choline alphoscerate treatment in craniocerebral injury. Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2003 Nov;37(6):1231-8.

24. Choudhary MI, Yousuf S, Nawaz SA, Ahmed S, Atta uR. Cholinesterase inhibiting withanolides from Withania somnifera. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2004 Nov;52(11):1358-61.

25. Dhuley JN. Nootropic-like effect of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera L.) in mice. Phytother Res. 2001 Sep;15(6):524-8.

26. Chaudhary G, Sharma U, Jagannathan NR, Gupta YK. Evaluation of Withania somnifera in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke in rats. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2003 May;30(5-6):399-404.

27. Joseph JA, Shukitt-Hale B, Denisova NA, et al. Reversals of age-related declines in neuronal signal transduction, cognitive, and motor behavioral deficits with blueberry, spinach, or strawberry dietary supplements. J Neurosci. 1999 Sep 15;19(18):8114-21.

28. Kuboyama T, Tohda C, Komatsu K. Neuritic regeneration and synaptic reconstruction induced by withanolide A. Br J Pharmacol. 2005 Apr;144(7):961-71.

29. Available at: www.holisticonline.com/ HerbalMed/Herbs/h119.html. Accessed March 2, 2006.

30. Meieran SE, Reus VI, Webster R, Shafton R, Wolkowitz OM. Chronic pregnenolone effects in normal humans: attenuation of benzodiazepine-induced sedation. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2004 May;29(4):486-500.

31. Schumacher M, Guennoun R, Robert F, et al. Local synthesis and dual actions of progesterone in the nervous system: neuroprotection and myelination. Growth Horm IGF Res. 2004 Jun;14 Suppl AS18-S33.

32. Mayo W, Lemaire V, Malaterre J, et al. Pregnenolone sulfate enhances neurogenesis and PSA-NCAM in young and aged hippocampus. Neurobiol Aging. 2005 Jan;26(1):103-14.

33. Mayo W, George O, Darbra S, et al. Individual differences in cognitive aging: implication of pregnenolone sulfate. Prog Neurobiol. 2003 Sep;71(1):43-8.

34. Shi J, Yu J, Pohorly JE, Kakuda Y. Polyphenolics in grape seeds-biochemistry and functionality. J Med Food. 2003;6(4):291-9.

35. Li MH, Jang JH, Sun B, Surh YJ. Protective effects of oligomers of grape seed polyphenols against beta-amyloid-induced oxidative cell death. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1030:317-29.

36. Balu M, Sangeetha P, Murali G, Panneerselvam C. Modulatory role of grape seed extract on age-related oxidative DNA damage in central nervous system of rats. Brain Res Bull. 2006 Feb 15;68(6):469-73.

37. Szilagyi G, Nagy Z, Balkay L, et al. Effects of vinpocetine on the redistribution of cerebral blood flow and glucose metabolism in chronic ischemic stroke patients: a PET study. J Neurol Sci. 2005 Mar 15;229-230:275-84.

38. McDaniel MA, Maier SF, Einstein GO. “Brain-specific” nutrients: a memory cure? Nutrition. 2003 Nov;19(11-12):957-75.

39. Grzanna R, Phan P, Polotsky A, Lindmark L, Frondoza CG. Ginger extract inhibits beta-amyloid peptide-induced cytokine and chemokine expression in cultured THP-1 monocytes. J Altern Complement Med. 2004 Dec;10(6):1009-13.

40. Sirven J, Malamut B. Clinical Neurology of the Older Adult. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2002.


Free Shipping in the Continental U.S. on Orders over $50
The statements made here have not been evaluated by the FDA. The foregoing statements are based upon sound and reliable studies, and are meant for informational purposes. Consult with your medical practitioner to determine the underlying cause of your symptoms. Please always check your purchase for possible allergins and correct dosage on the bottle before use.

While we work to ensure that product information is correct, on occasion manufacturers may alter their ingredient lists. Actual product packaging and materials may contain more and/or different information than that shown on our Web site. We recommend that you do not solely rely on the information presented and that you always read labels, warnings, and directions before using or consuming a product. For additional information about a product, please contact the manufacturer. Content on this site is for reference purposes and is not intended to substitute for advice given by a physician, pharmacist, or other licensed health-care professional. You should not use this information as self-diagnosis or for treating a health problem or disease. Contact your health-care provider immediately if you suspect that you have a medical problem. Information and statements regarding dietary supplements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition. Life Ex Online assumes no liability for inaccuracies or misstatements about products.