By William FaloonLowering Calorie Intake and Your Fasting Glucose Is Good for Mind and BodyToo Many Calories Could Increase Memory Loss
The latest findings from the Mayo Clinic in Scottsdale, Arizona could add yet another condition to the growing list of those that have been found to benefit from calorie restriction: a better memory.
In research scheduled for presentation at the American Academy of Neurology's 64th Annual Meeting, to be held April 21 to April 28, 2012 in New Orleans, Yonas E. Geda, MD, MSc and associates discovered a link between decreased calorie intake and a lower risk of mild cognitive impairment, a condition that can precede Alzheimer's disease.
The current study included 1,233 participants in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, an ongoing population-based study centered in Olmsted County, Minnesota. The subjects, who were between the ages of 70 and 89, completed dietary questionnaires within one year of being interviewed. While the study excluded those with dementia, 163 subjects were determined to be cognitively impaired.
Although no significant difference was found between those whose calorie intake was among the lowest one-third at 600 to 1,526 calories per day and those whose intake was among the middle third at 1,527 to 2,142.5 calories, those whose intake was highest had 2.41 times the risk of cognitive impairment than those whose calorie consumption was lowest. The risk remained unchanged after adjustment for diabetes, stroke, education level and other factors.
"We observed a dose-response pattern which simply means; the higher the amount of calories consumed each day, the higher the risk of mild cognitive impairment," stated Dr Geda, MD who is a member of the American Academy of Neurology. "Cutting calories and eating foods that make up a healthy diet may be a simpler way to prevent memory loss as we age."Proven Methods to Reduce Fasting and Postprandial Glucose Levels
Scientific studies indicate that any amount of fasting glucose over 85 mg/dL incrementally adds to heart attack risk.1
Postprandial glucose surges over 140 mg/dL lead to diabetic complications, even in those who are not diabetic.
If you can choose an ideal fasting glucose reading, it would probably be around 74 mg/dL.2 We know, however, that some people are challenged to keep their glucose under 100 mg/dL. What this means is that it is critically important for aging individuals to follow an aggressive program to suppress excess glucose as much as possible.
The good news is that many approaches that reduce glucose also lower insulin,3,4 LDL,3,5-7 triglycerides,3,8-10 and C-reactive protein,11 thereby slashing one’s risk of vascular disease,9,12-14 cancer,15-18 dementia,19-23 and a host of other degenerative disorders.
This month’s issue featured an in-depth review of green coffee bean extract that has been shown to reduce postprandial glucose levels by an average of 32%.24 It functions by inhibiting the glucose-6-phosphatase enzyme that enables the body to create new surplus glucose and inappropriately release stored glucose from tissues.
To achieve optimal glucose levels, some people will need to take steps to impede glucose absorption and improve insulin sensitivity. In this section, we succinctly describe drugs, hormones, nutrients, and lifestyle changes that facilitate healthy glucose levels.
Since Life Extension® members know it is best to take dietary supplements with meals, it should not be difficult for them to make it a routine practice to shield their bloodstream from excessive calorie absorption by taking the proper nutrients before most meals.
An efficient way of obtaining nutrients that can impede the impact of carbohydrate and fat foods when taken before meals is a powdered drink mix that provides the nutrients in the box below.NUTRIENTS THAT REDUCE THE IMPACT OF EXCESS CALORIE INTAKEPropolmannan 2,000 mg
Mechanism(s): Slows gastric emptying to delay rapid carbohydrate absorption. It also provides a viscous barrier that binds bile acids that normally facilitate fat absorption.25-27Phaseolus vulgaris 445 mg
Mechanism(s): Inhibits the amylase digestive enzyme used to break down carbohydrate foods for eventual absorption into the blood as glucose.10,28Irvingia gabonensis 150 mg
Mechanism(s): Inhibits amylase and functions via three additional mechanisms to internally regulate glucose and triglyceride metabolism.29-31Green Tea Extract 100 mg and higher
Mechanism(s): Inhibits the lipase digestive enzyme used to break down fatty foods and boosts internal utilization of glucose by boosting resting metabolic rate.32,33
We suggest taking a powdered drink mix containing these ingredients before the two heaviest meals of the day.For Sugar Addicts
For those whose glucose levels remain unacceptably high despite taking the powdered drink mix, there are encapsulated nutrients that work to specifically block the sucrase and glucosidase digestive enzymes. Sucrase breaks down sucrose to fructose and glucose, and glucosidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkage to all carbohydrates to release smaller sugars. Blocking these enzymes reduces the amount of glucose absorbed from dietary sources. One capsule containing L-arabinose and a special brown seaweed extract should be taken before eating sucrose (table sugar)-containing foods.34-36Enhancing Insulin Sensitivity
Aging causes a loss of insulin sensitivity, which means that glucose that would normally be utilized by energy-producing cells instead either remains in the blood or converts to storage as triglycerides (in blood and fat cells) or glycogen in the liver.
A cinnamon extract has been developed to enhance the ability of insulin to drive blood glucose into muscle cells. This cinnamon compound that enhances insulin sensitivity is combined with brown seaweed extract (to inhibit the glucosidase enzyme) to provide additive control over glucose levels.36-42Drug Options
An anti-diabetic drug that Life Extension suggests normal aging people consider taking to lower glucose is metformin (refer to article on page 56 of this month’s issue about metformin and cancer risk reduction). It is available in low-cost generic form.
Metformin has a long history of safe human use, plus intriguing data to suggest that it may possess anti-aging properties.43,44 We think that those with excess fasting blood glucose (above 80-85 mg/dL) should ask their doctor about metformin even if they are not diagnosed as diabetic.
Some of the side benefits of metformin include weight loss45-47 and triglyceride reduction,48-50 which are in themselves proven heart attack risk-reducers.METFORMIN DOSING AND PRECAUTIONS
The dose of metformin varies considerably. The starting dose may be as low as 250-500 mg once a day with a meal. If hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) does not manifest, the dose of metformin may be increased to 500-850 mg taken before two or three meals, all under the supervision of your physician, of course. One side effect of metformin is that it can cause homocysteine levels to elevate.51 This is less likely to happen to Life Extension members who already take nutrients that suppress homocysteine. Those with impaired kidney function or congestive heart failure may not be able to take metformin.
Metformin functions to reduce absorption of ingested carbohydrates,52-54 suppress appetite,55,56 enhance insulin sensitivity,57-59 and most uniquely, metformin inhibits the release of stored liver glucose (glycogen) back into the blood.60-63
One of the problems that frustrates so many people who follow a low-calorie diet, yet have persistently elevated glucose levels, is that the liver improperly dumps too much glucose into the blood. This of course is a vital life function in a starvation state, but for aging individuals, excess hepatic release of glycogen (called gluconeogenesis) causes them to suffer chronically high glucose and insulin levels. Metformin inhibits gluconeogenesis.64,65
Another low-cost drug that lowers glucose levels is acarbose, which reduces the absorption of ingested carbohydrates by inhibiting the glucosidase and other sugar absorbing-enzymes in the small intestine. A typical dose is 50-100 mg of acarbose taken before each meal. Some people experience intestinal side effects, but otherwise, acarbose is highly efficacious in reducing blood glucose levels and reducing several cardiac risk markers in the blood.9,12,13
There are of course other FDA-approved drugs that will lower your glucose levels. Many of these drugs, however, function by mechanisms that carry side effect risks.
Life Extension stands on solid scientific ground in recommending that those with impaired glucose tolerance follow an aggressive program that involves eating healthier and smaller meals, exercising, and taking nutrients before meals that deflect the impact of excess calorie intake. Drugs like metformin may be considered for its multiple benefits that extend beyond mere glucose control. Acarbose should be utilized if glucose levels remain stubbornly high.METHODS TO REDUCE POSTPRANDIAL GLUCOSE LEVELS
- Fasting blood glucose levels over 85 mg/dL increase heart attack risk.
Postprandial glucose levels over 140 mg/dL may lead to complications associated with diabetes—even in those who are not diabetic.
- Nutritional, hormonal, dietary, and lifestyle methods that lower blood glucose can reduce cardiovascular risk factors, lessen cancer risk, and improve markers associated with longevity.
- Plant extracts such as propolmannan, irvingia extract, Phaseolus vulgaris (white bean) extract, green tea, and cinnamon can help reduce glucose levels and promote healthy insulin sensitivity.
- The anti-diabetes drug metformin helps promote healthy blood glucose and lipid levels while supporting weight loss efforts.
- Optimizing DHEA levels in men and women and testosterone levels in men may help promote optimal glucose levels and insulin sensitivity.
- Healthy lifestyle choices such as calorie restriction, exercise, consuming a Mediterranean diet, and avoiding dietary sugars further support healthy blood glucose levels.
Normal aging is accompanied by a sharp decline in hormones that are involved in maintaining insulin sensitivity and hepatic glucose control.
Restoring DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) levels to youthful ranges in men and women may help enhance insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in the liver.66-70
Progressive doctors are realizing that in men, a testosterone deficiency can induce a serious reduction of insulin sensitivity. For men, restoring youthful levels of testosterone has been shown to be particularly beneficial in facilitating glucose control.71 Blood tests can assess your hormonal status so a man can replenish testosterone (and DHEA) to more youthful ranges. Optimal free testosterone blood levels in men are between 20-25 pg/mL.72
Life Extension has published articles showing that diabetic men can derive enormous benefits by restoring testosterone to youthful ranges, as opposed to overloading the body with excess insulin as mainstream doctors continue to do.73-75Dietary Options
People can achieve remarkable control over glucose levels by altering their diet and exercising more. Below are three dietary options to consider:
1. Consume a low-calorie diet (often less than 1,400-1,800 calories a day). Most people cannot adhere to this kind of low-calorie diet.76
2. Consume a Mediterranean diet, with lots of fresh fruits and vegetables, fish and beans as protein sources, and omega-3 and monounsaturated fats (olive oil), while avoiding saturated fats, refined carbohydrates, cholesterol-laden foods, excess omega-6 fats, and most animal products. An increasing percentage of health-conscious Americans are adopting this kind of diet.77-79
3. Avoid sugary fruit juices (almost all fruit juices contain too many sugars) and beverages spiked with fructose,80-84 sucrose,85-89 and/or high-fructose corn syrup.90-94 Consume a low-glycemic index and low-glycemic load diet.95.96
From a practical standpoint, achieving optimal glucose readings on your next blood test will probably involve a combination of the various approaches described in this section. Each individual will respond differently.
For some, a modest reduction in calorie intake and an increase in physical activity will sufficiently lower fasting and after-meal glucose levels. Most aging individuals, however, will need to take nutrients such as green coffee berry extract and other carbohydrate-enzyme inhibitors before heavy meals to impede the impact of ingested calories. Others should ask their doctor about prescription drugs such as metformin.
When one questions the importance of doing all this, please know that the incidence of pre-diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes is increasing at alarming rates. In fact, diseases related to glucose impairment are skyrocketing everywhere in the world that adopts unhealthy Western eating habits.
A medical catastrophe is predicted for the United States as the vast majority of the population is now overweight and suffers frighteningly high levels of glucose, insulin, and triglycerides.
The single most important component of one’s longevity program may be the steps taken before meals to neutralize the toxic effects of excess calories most of us invariably ingest.
Life Extension urges all members to enact a personal program designed to suppress fasting glucose levels to ranges below 86 mg/dL and keep two-hour after-meal glucose surges below 120-140 mg/dL. Fortunately, there is a wide range of options that enable aging humans to accomplish this profoundly effective anti-aging feat.HORMONE PRECAUTIONS
Men with pre-existing prostate cancer should avoid testosterone until their cancer is cured. Women with certain types of hormone-related cancers are advised to avoid DHEA until their cancer is cured. Men who replace testosterone are advised to test their blood within 60 days to make sure that their estrogen (estradiol) levels and prostate- specific antigen (PSA) are not increasing. Some men convert (aromatize) testosterone into estradiol. If this happens, there are drugs (like anastrozole) or nutrients that inhibit the aromatase enzyme to keep estradiol in the safe range of between 20-30 pg/mL. These blood tests, taken 60 days after testosterone therapy is initiated, can also detect liver or blood count abnormalities that in rare cases can be exacerbated by testosterone.References below.
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