~ The Perricone Weight Loss Program, Part 5 - Superstar Supplements


Astaxanthin comes from the microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis, found in abundance in arctic marine environments, and is a natural carotenoid (any of a class of yellow to red pigments, including the carotenes and the xanthophylls). Carotenoids are one of the most abundant molecules in the world and give nature its wide variety of colors—from carrots to flamingos. Astaxanthin is an amazingly powerful antioxidant and is often referred to as “red gold from the sea.”

Astaxanthin is one of the xanthophyll group of the carotenoid family. Xanthophylls help to protect vitamin A, vitamin E, and other carotenoids from oxidation. It is the most potent of all of the carotenoids—in fact, it is 10 times stronger than beta-carotene and 100 times stronger than vitamin E. Wild Alaskan salmon, lobster, rainbow trout, shrimp, crawfish, crab, and red caviar all owe their rich colors to their astaxanthin-rich diets—just one of the reasons wild salmon tops my SuperFood list. The variety of wild Alaskan salmon known as “sockeye” delivers the greatest amount of astaxanthin, with 4.5 mg per four-ounce serving. To put this in antioxidant perspective, 4.5 mg of astaxanthin is equal to 450 mg of vitamin E. Astaxanthin is also superior to many other antioxidants due to the unique role it may play in protecting the cell membrane.

Astaxanthin Tips

Because astaxanthin has been proven to cross the blood–brain barrier (see carnitine), it offers protection to the brain, the central nervous system, and the eyes. Astaxanthin:
  • increases physical endurance and reduces muscle damage.
  • reduces eye fatigue and improves visual acuity.
  • provides wrinkle reduction by internal supplementation.
  • reduces hyperpigmentation (better known as age spots).
  • provides cytokine regulation, inhibiting the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines.
  • improves gastric health and reduces infection/inflammation of H. pylori, spiral-shaped bacteria that can damage stomach and duodenal tissue, causing ulcers.
  • is an exceptional anti-inflammatory, making it an important component of the Perricone Weight-Loss Diet. Its ability to protect muscles and increase physical endurance is a wonderful asset for everyone needing to start and maintain a regular exercise program.

One to two capsules, 2 mg each, per day.


Carnitine is a nutrient that was once classified as an amino acid, but we now know that is incorrect. Carnitine is a water-soluble nutrient, very much like a B vitamin, that allows us to convert fat into energy. Carnitine and its derivative, acetyl-L-carnitine, are two of the most important nutrients for weight loss. However, for carnitine to have optimum effect, we must have adequate essential fatty acids (such as omega-3s) present in the diet. Carnitine is critical for energy formation and an active metabolism. Small amounts of carnitine can be obtained from foods such as meats and dairy products, but to get an adequate supply, we must take carnitine supplements.

You’ll remember that fats provide an important source of energy within the body, especially for muscles such as the heart, as well as vital organs such as the liver. In order for fat to be turned into fuel, it has to be carried into the energy-producing portion of the cell known as the mitochondria. It is the role of carnitine to transport the fatty acids from our blood into the cell for this energy production.

Carnitine also provides anti-aging benefits in that it enhances energy production in the cell, which is needed for cellular repair. Studies have also shown that carnitine helps prevent muscle loss during illness and also prevents the muscle loss associated with aging, known as sarcopenia. Carnitine is protective of liver function and enhances and protects the immune system, especially under stressful conditions.

Carnitine Tips
  • For carnitine to have optimum effect, make sure you have an adequate omega-3 intake.
  • Do not take carnitine in the evening, as it may interfere with sleep.
  • Carnitine may be taken with or without food.
  • For better utilization of fat for energy, take omega-3 fish oil with carnitine.

The recommended dose for an adult under the age of 30 without ill health or obesity is approximately 500 mg per day. For those who are obese or have other health problems, the recommendation is 1500 to 2000 mg per day, taken in 500-mg doses three or four times per day.


You have been advised to avoid high-glycemic foods as a surefire way to decrease inflammation and facilitate weight loss. However, there is another reason to steer clear of these foods. I have explained that these foods cause sudden spikes in blood sugar levels, resulting in the release of insulin into the bloodstream that then causes us to store, rather than burn, fat.

However, that is not the only negative by-product. As we know, when sugars and starches are eaten, they cause a burst of inflammation throughout the body. These sugars (and foods that rapidly convert to sugar) can permanently attach to the collagen present in our skin and other parts of the body through a process known as “glycation.” At the point of attachment, there is a small mechanism creating inflammation, which then becomes a source of inflammation in its own right. This inflammation produces enzymes that break down collagen, resulting in wrinkles. In addition to inflammation, glycation also causes cross-linking in our collagen, making it stiff and inflexible where it was once soft and supple.

But it is not just the skin we have to worry about. These “sugar-bonds” can occur throughout the body as we age. The sugar molecule attaches itself to our collagen as well as our arteries, veins, bones, ligaments, even our brains, resulting in the breakdown of organ systems and the deterioration of the body. Glycation creates “free radical” factories known as advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which also increase cellular inflammation. Because the Perricone Weight-Loss Diet is anti-inflammatory, it will prevent glycation, stop inflammation, keep the brain functioning properly, and facilitate weight loss. The alternative? Being wrinkled, depressed, and overweight.


Acetyl-L-carnitine is synthesized from carnitine by the addition of an acetyl group to the carnitine molecule. While this synthesis means that it cannot be found in food, the good news is that this form of carnitine can pass through the blood–brain barrier, which separates the blood vessels from the central nervous system. The barrier has a protective effect, but it can stop the passage of therapeutic substances along with the harmful ones. Since acetyl-L-carnitine can penetrate this barrier, it has a particularly beneficial effect on the brain cells. In fact, acetyl-L-carnitine is extremely neuroprotective and should be used on a daily basis to prevent the neurological decline seen with aging.

Like carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine improves mitochondrial function, but to an even greater degree, because it can pass through the mitochondrial membrane. And like carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine functions best when there is adequate dietary intake of omega-3 essential fatty acids. Acetyl-L-carnitine is a natural anti-inflammatory that enhances the effects of antioxidant systems within the body. These anti-inflammatory properties protect the cell plasma membrane (the cell’s first line of defense) and prevent the conversion of arachidonic acid into inflammatory chemicals.

Acetyl-L-carnitine can also help repair the mitochondria, boost levels of the antioxidants glutathione and coenzyme Q10, and work synergistically with alpha lipoic acid, another powerful antioxidant/anti-inflammatory. Both acetyl-L-carnitine and carnitine have been known to actually improve the lipid profile within our blood by reducing the level of triglycerides and raising levels of HDL (good) cholesterol.

Both forms of carnitine are important in a weight-loss regimen because they act as natural anti-inflammatories, and they aid in transportation of fats into the mitochondria to be burned. They also enhance the sensitivity of insulin receptors, helping to decrease blood sugar and circulating levels of insulin. As we have learned, high levels of insulin are inflammatory and “lock” our body fat in place. Both carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine help prevent glycation.

Acetyl-L-Carnitine Tips
  • Carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine are not to be used by people with bipolar disease (manic depression) or those who are susceptible to seizures (epilepsy) unless recommended by their physician.
  • Do not take acetyl-L-carnitine after 3 p.m., to prevent any difficulties with sleeping.
  • Exercise naturally increases our levels of acetyl-L-carnitine; however, if we are obese, over 30, or have other health problems, it will not raise them to therapeutic levels; therefore supplementation is necessary.
  • Acetyl-L-carnitine may be taken with or without food.
  • For better utilization of fat for energy, take omega-3 fish oil with carnitine.

500 mg per day; however, individuals on a weight-loss program may take up to 1500 mg daily.


CLA is a fatty acid that is found in many of the foods we eat. At one time, beef and lamb were exceptional sources; however, when their diet was changed from grass to grain, levels of CLA dramatically decreased in meat and dairy products. When CLA is present, it is found in the fatty portion of milk. Drinking skim milk prevents us from receiving the benefits of CLA.

However, since CLA levels are now so low in animal products, skim vs. full-fat milk is a moot point.

When taken in effective doses, CLA decreases body fat, especially in the area of the abdomen. There are several mechanisms of CLA’s activity that accomplish these feats:
  • CLA actually concentrates in the cell membrane, stabilizing it and thus preventing the breakdown of arachidonic acid into a pro-inflammatory prostaglandin. It helps the insulin receptors remain intact, thus increasing insulin sensitivity, which will then decrease blood sugar and circulating insulin levels.

  • Remarkably, studies show that CLA also helps block the absorption of fat and sugar into fat cells (adipocytes). It even induces a reduction in the actual size of the fat cells (one reason people gain weight as they age is that their fat cells literally become fatter).
CLA Tips
  • When taken with sesame seeds, the effects of CLA are enhanced.
  • The average diet provides no more than a gram (1000 mg) of CLA per day.
  • CLA may be taken with meals.

1000 mg, up to a maximum of 4000 mg per day, taken in one or two doses.


Coenzyme Q10, also called ubiquinone, is a powerful antioxidant/anti-inflammatory with many benefits for treating and preventing obesity. It acts similarly to acetyl-L-carnitine in that it assists in energy production within the mitochondria. As we have learned, energy production declines as a cell ages, and that means that the cell’s ability to repair itself also declines. Working synergistically with acetyl-L-carnitine, carnitine, and alpha lipoic acid in the mitochondria, CoQ10 enhances the metabolism, giving us greater energy and endurance, and a greater ability to lose body fat, while preventing the energy decline seen in aging cells.

CoQ10 also works synergistically with other antioxidants to elevate cellular levels of vitamins C and E and glutathione and to help regulate blood sugar and enhance insulin sensitivity. CoQ10 also maximizes the burning of foods for fuel, helping to normalize fats in our blood.

Hundreds of studies document the effectiveness of CoQ10 in protecting all vital organs of the body, including the brain, heart, and kidneys. Because of its powerful anti-inflammatory effects, CoQ10 is extremely protective of the cardiovascular system. It keeps the heart muscle healthy and also prevents inflammation in the arteries, which leads to arteriosclerosis.

Although CoQ10 can be found in small amounts in fish such as sardines or salmon, as well as in nuts, I recommend supplementation for optimal anti-aging and weight-loss benefits. CoQ10 supplementation is of particular importance for women because they tend to have lower levels than their male counterparts.

CoQ10 Tips
  • This supplement should be taken by anyone over 40, as tissue levels of CoQ10 decrease as people get older.
  • CoQ10 is best taken with food.

I recommend a minimum of 30 mg per day. For those with health problems, under the supervision and recommendation of their physician, up to 300 mg per day. About three weeks of daily dosing are necessary to reach maximal serum concentrations of CoQ10.

Continued . . .

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