~ Mar 07 Uncovering a Hidden Source of Cardiovascular Disease Risk - References


1. Twickler TB, linga-Thie GM, Cohn JS, Chapman MJ. Elevated remnant-like particle cholesterol concentration: a characteristic feature of the atherogenic lipoprotein phenotype. Circulation. 2004 Apr 27;109(16):1918-25.

2. Ceriello A, Taboga C, Tonutti L, et al. Evidence for an independent and cumulative effect of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia on endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress generation: effects of short- and long-term simvastatin treatment. Circulation. 2002 Sep 3;106(10):1211-8.

3. Jagla A, Schrezenmeir J. Postprandial triglycerides and endothelial function. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2001;109(4):S533-47.

4. Maggi FM, Raselli S, Grigore L, et al. Lipoprotein remnants and endothelial dysfunction in the postprandial phase. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Jun;89(6):2946-50.

5. Ceriello A, Quagliaro L, Piconi L, et al. Effect of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and hyperglycemia on circulating adhesion molecules and oxidative stress generation and the possible role of simvastatin treatment. Diabetes. 2004 Mar;53(3):701-10.

6. Silveira A. Postprandial triglycerides and blood coagulation. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2001;109(4):S527-32.

7. Ebenbichler CF, Kirchmair R, Egger C, Patsch JR. Postprandial state and atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol. 1995 Oct;6(5):286-90.

8. Teno S, Uto Y, Nagashima H, et al. Association of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and carotid intima-media thickness in patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2000 Sep;23(9):1401-6.

9. Mori Y, Itoh Y, Komiya H, Tajima N. Association between postprandial remnant-like particle triglyceride (RLP-TG) levels and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes: assessment by meal tolerance tests (MTT). Endocrine. 2005 Nov;28(2):157-63.

10. Hyson D, Rutledge JC, Berglund L. Postprandial lipemia and cardiovascular disease. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2003 Nov;5(6):437-44.

11. Karpe F, Steiner G, Uffelman K, Olivecrona T, Hamsten A. Postprandial lipoproteins and progression of coronary atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis. 1994 Mar;106(1):83-97.

12. Grundy SM, Cleeman JI, Merz CN, et al. Implications of recent clinical trials for the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Aug 4;44(3):720-32.

13. Miller M, Zhan M, Georgopoulos A. Effect of desirable fasting triglycerides on the postprandial response to dietary fat. J Investig Med. 2003 Feb;51(1):50-5.

14. Johanson EH, Jansson PA, Gustafson B, et al. Early alterations in the postprandial VLDL1 apoB-100 and apoB-48 metabolism in men with strong heredity for type 2 diabetes. J Intern Med. 2004 Feb;255(2):273-9.

15. Ford ES, Giles WH, Dietz WH. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among US adults: findings from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. JAMA. 2002 Jan 16;287(3):356-9.

16. Kolovou GD, Anagnostopoulou KK, Pavlidis AN, et al. Postprandial lipemia in men with metabolic syndrome, hypertensives and healthy subjects. Lipids Health Dis. 2005;421.

17. van Oostrom AJ, Castro CM, Ribalta J, et al. Diurnal triglyceride profiles in healthy normolipidemic male subjects are associated to insulin sensitivity, body composition and diet. Eur J Clin Invest. 2000 Nov;30(11):964-71.

18. Tenenbaum A, Fisman EZ, Motro M, Adler Y. Atherogenic dyslipidemia in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes: therapeutic options beyond statins. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2006;5:20.

19. Duez H, Lamarche B, Uffelman KD,, et al. Hyperinsulinemia is associated with increased production rate of intestinal apolipoprotein B-48-containing lipoproteins in humans. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006 Jun;26(6):1357-63.

20. Annuzzi G, De NC, Iovine C, et al. Insulin resistance is independently associated with postprandial alterations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004 Dec;24(12):2397-402.

21. Tsunoda F, Koba S, Hirano T, et al. Association between small dense low-density lipoprotein and postprandial accumulation of triglyceride-rich remnant-like particles in normotriglyceridemic patients with myocardial infarction. Circ J. 2004 Dec;68(12):1165-72.

22. Karpe F, Hamsten A. Postprandial lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis. Curr Opin Lipidol. 1995 Jun;6(3):123-9.

23. Pedrini MT, Niederwanger A, Kranebitter M, et al. Postprandial lipaemia induces an acute decrease of insulin sensitivity in healthy men independently of plasma NEFA levels. Diabetologia. 2006 Jul;49(7):1612-8.

24. Krauss RM. Atherogenicity of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Am J Cardiol. 1998 Feb 26;81(4A):13B-7B.

25. Sutherland WH, Restieaux NJ, Nye ER, et al. IDL composition and angiographically determined progression of atherosclerotic lesions during simvastatin therapy. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998 Apr;18(4):577-83.

26. Lyons TJ, Jenkins AJ, Zheng D, et al. Nuclear magnetic resonance-determined lipoprotein subclass profile in the DCCT/EDIC cohort: associations with carotid intima-media thickness. Diabet Med. 2006 Sep;23(9):955-66.

27. Batista MC, Welty FK, Diffenderfer MR, et al. Apolipoprotein A-I, B-100, and B-48 metabolism in subjects with chronic kidney disease, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. Metabolism. 2004 Oct;53(10):1255-61.

28. Schrezenmeir J, Keppler I, Fenselau S, et al. The phenomenon of a high triglyceride response to an oral lipid load in healthy subjects and its link to the metabolic syndrome. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1993 Jun 14;683:302-14.

29. Bergeron N, Havel RJ. Influence of diets rich in saturated and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids on the postprandial responses of apolipoproteins B-48, B-100, E, and lipids in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1995 Dec;15(12):2111-21.

30. Thomsen C, Storm H, Holst JJ, Hermansen K. Differential effects of saturated and monounsaturated fats on postprandial lipemia and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses in patients with type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Mar;77(3):605-11.

31. Sharman MJ, Gomez AL, Kraemer WJ, Volek JS. Very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets affect fasting lipids and postprandial lipemia differently in overweight men. J Nutr. 2004 Apr;134(4):880-5.

32. Volek JS, Gomez AL, Kraemer WJ. Fasting lipoprotein and postprandial triacylglycerol responses to a low-carbohydrate diet supplemented with n-3 fatty acids. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Jun;19(3):383-91.

33. Sharman MJ, Kraemer WJ, Love DM, et al. A ketogenic diet favorably affects serum biomarkers for cardiovascular disease in normal-weight men. J Nutr. 2002 Jul;132(7):1879-85.

34. Volek JS, Sharman MJ, Forsythe CE. Modification of lipoproteins by very low-carbohydrate diets. J Nutr. 2005 Jun;135(6):1339-42.

35. Chan DC, Watts GF, Mori TA, et al. Randomized controlled trial of the effect of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on the metabolism of apolipoprotein B-100 and chylomicron remnants in men with visceral obesity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb;77(2):300-7.

36. Westphal S, Orth M, Ambrosch A, Osmundsen K, Luley C. Postprandial chylomicrons and VLDLs in severe hypertriacylglycerolemia are lowered more effectively than are chylomicron remnants after treatment with n-3 fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Apr;71(4):914-20.

37. Park Y, Harris WS. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation accelerates chylomicron triglyceride clearance. J Lipid Res. 2003 Mar;44(3):455-63.

38. Nordoy A, Hansen JB, Brox J, Svensson B. Effects of atorvastatin and omega-3 fatty acids on LDL subfractions and postprandial hyperlipemia in patients with combined hyperlipemia. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2001 Feb;11(1):7-16.

39. Westphal S, Taneva E, Kastner S, et al. Endothelial dysfunction induced by postprandial lipemia is neutralized by addition of proteins to the fatty meal. Atherosclerosis. 2006 Apr;185(2):313-9.

40. Unno T, Tago M, Suzuki Y, et al. Effect of tea catechins on postprandial plasma lipid responses in human subjects. Br J Nutr. 2005 Apr;93(4):543-7.

41. Udani J, Hardy M, Madsen DC. Blocking carbohydrate absorption and weight loss: a clinical trial using Phase 2 brand proprietary fractionated white bean extract. Altern Med Rev. 2004 Mar;9(1):63-9.

42. Katsanos CS. Prescribing aerobic exercise for the regulation of postprandial lipid metabolism: current research and recommendations. Sports Med. 2006;36(7):547-60.

43. van Wijk JP, de Koning EJ, Castro Cabezas M, Rabelink TJ. Rosiglitazone improves postprandial triglyceride and free fatty acid metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2005 Apr;28(4):844-9.

44. Caixas A, Perez A, Payes A, et al. Effects of a short-acting insulin analog (Insulin Lispro) versus regular insulin on lipid metabolism in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Metabolism. 1998 Apr;47(4):371-6.

45. Al Majali K, Cooper MB, Staels B, Luc G, Taskinen MR, Betteridge DJ. The effect of sensitisation to insulin with pioglitazone on fasting and postprandial lipid metabolism, lipoprotein modification by lipases, and lipid transfer activities in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetologia. 2006 Mar;49(3):527-37.

46. Tan GD, Fielding BA, Currie JM, et al. The effects of rosiglitazone on fatty acid and triglyceride metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia. 2005 Jan;48(1):83-95.

47. Emral R, Koseoglulari O, Tonyukuk V, Uysal AR, Kamel N, Corapcioglu D. The effect of short-term glycemic regulation with gliclazide and metformin on postprandial lipemia. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2005 Feb;113(2):80-4.

48. Schaefer EJ, McNamara JR, Tayler T, et al. Comparisons of effects of statins (atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, and simvastatin) on fasting and postprandial lipoproteins in patients with coronary heart disease versus control subjects. Am J Cardiol. 2004 Jan 1;93(1):31-9.

49. Ooi TC, Cousins M, Ooi DS, Nakajima K, Edwards AL. Effect of fibrates on postprandial remnant-like particles in patients with combined hyperlipidemia. Atherosclerosis. 2004 Feb;172(2):375-82.

50. Li D. Omega-3 fatty acids and non-communicable diseases. Chin Med J (Engl). 2003 Mar;116(3):453-8.

Free Shipping in the Continental U.S. on Orders over $50
The statements made here have not been evaluated by the FDA. The foregoing statements are based upon sound and reliable studies, and are meant for informational purposes. Consult with your medical practitioner to determine the underlying cause of your symptoms. Please always check your purchase for possible allergins and correct dosage on the bottle before use.

While we work to ensure that product information is correct, on occasion manufacturers may alter their ingredient lists. Actual product packaging and materials may contain more and/or different information than that shown on our Web site. We recommend that you do not solely rely on the information presented and that you always read labels, warnings, and directions before using or consuming a product. For additional information about a product, please contact the manufacturer. Content on this site is for reference purposes and is not intended to substitute for advice given by a physician, pharmacist, or other licensed health-care professional. You should not use this information as self-diagnosis or for treating a health problem or disease. Contact your health-care provider immediately if you suspect that you have a medical problem. Information and statements regarding dietary supplements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition. Life Ex Online assumes no liability for inaccuracies or misstatements about products.