~ Hidden Cardiac Risk Factors - References


1. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/lcod.htm. Accessed January 31, 2006.

2. Li JJ, Chen JL. Inflammation may be a bridge connecting hypertension and atherosclerosis. Med Hypotheses. 2005;64(5):925-9.

3. Liao JK. Clinical implications for statin pleiotropy. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2005 Dec;16(6):624-9.

4. Li JJ, Fang CH. Atheroscleritis is a more rational term for the pathological entity currently known as atherosclerosis. Med Hypotheses. 2004;63(1):100-2.

5. Muhlestein JB. Infectious agents, antibiotics, and coronary artery disease. Curr Interv Cardiol Rep. 2000 Nov;2(4):342-8.

6. Chyi-Huey Bai, et al. Relations between coagulation profiles, lipid profiles, and other risk factors with risk of first-ever ischemic stroke: a novel case-control study. Abstracts of the International Stroke Conference 2000 32: 367-b Poster Presentation. P 156.

7. Chen Jiunn-Rong. Dilatation of common carotid artery is strongly associated with cerebral ischemic stroke with or without the presence of carotid atherosclerosis Abstracts of the International Stroke Conference 2000 32: 365-d.

8. Audebert Heinrich J. Predictors of Progression in Lacunar Stroke. Abstracts of the International Stroke Conference 2000 32: 347-c.

9. Trouillas P. The “making” of a parenchymal hematoma. An early coagulopathy and specific risk factors contribute to grave intracerebral bleeding after intravenous rtPA thrombolysis. Abstracts of the International Stroke Conference 2000 32: 345-a.

10. Pearson TA, Mensah GA, Alexander RW, et al. Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: application to clinical and public health practice: A statement for healthcare professionals from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2003 Jan 28;107(3):499-511.

11. Ma J, Hennekens CH, Ridker PM, Stampfer MJ. A prospective study of fibrinogen and risk of myocardial infarction in the Physicians’ Health Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999 Apr;33(5):1347-52.

12. Coppola G, Rizzo M, Abrignani MG, et al. Fibrinogen as a predictor of mortality after acute myocardial infarction: a forty-two-month follow-up study. Ital Heart J. 2005 Apr;6(4):315-22.

13. Danesh J, Lewington S, Thompson SG, et al. Plasma fibrinogen level and the risk of major cardiovascular diseases and nonvascular mortality: an individual participant meta-analysis. JAMA. 2005 Oct 12;294(14):1799-809.

14. Acevedo M, Foody JM, Pearce GL, Sprecher DL. Fibrinogen: associations with cardiovascular events in an outpatient clinic. Am Heart J. 2002 Feb;143(2):277-82.

15. Bots ML, Elwood PC, Salonen JT, et al. Level of fibrinogen and risk of fatal and non-fatal stroke. EUROSTROKE: a collaborative study among research centres in Europe. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2002 Feb;56 Suppl 1i14-8.

16. de Maat MP. Effects of diet, drugs, and genes on plasma fibrinogen levels. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2001;936:509-21.

17. Lindahl B, Toss H, Siegbahn A, Venge P, Wallentin L. Markers of myocardial damage and inflammation in relation to long-term mortality in unstable coronary artery disease. FRISC Study Group. Fragmin during Instability in Coronary Artery Disease. N Engl J Med. 2000 Oct 19;343(16):1139-47.

18. Packard CJ, O’Reilly DS, Caslake MJ, et al. Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 as an independent predictor of coronary heart disease. West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study Group. N Engl J Med. 2000 Oct 19;343(16):1148-55.

19. Maresca G, Di BA, Marchioli R, Di MG. Measuring plasma fibrinogen to predict stroke and myocardial infarction: an update. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1999 Jun;19(6):1368-77.

20. Behar S. Lowering fibrinogen levels: clinical update. BIP Study Group. Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 1999 Feb;10 Suppl 1S41-3.

21. Thompson SG, Kienast J, Pyke SD, Haverkate F, van de Loo JC. Hemostatic factors and the risk of myocardial infarction or sudden death in patients with angina pectoris. European Concerted Action on Thrombosis and Disabilities Angina Pectoris Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1995 Mar 9;332(10):635-41.

22. ez-Ewald M, Campos G, Rivero F, et al. Hemostatic coronary risk factors in a healthy population of Maracaibo, Venezuela. Invest Clin. 2003 Mar;44(1):21-30.

23. Salobir B, Sabovic M, Peternel P, Stegnar M. Fibrinolytic parameters and lipoprotein(a) in young women with myocardial infarction. Angiology. 2002 Mar;53(2):157-63.

24. Cantin B, Despres JP, Lamarche B, et al. Association of fibrinogen and lipoprotein(a) as a coronary heart disease risk factor in men (The Quebec Cardiovascular Study). Am J Cardiol. 2002 Mar 15;89(6):662-6.

25. Sato S, Nakamura M, Iida M, et al. Plasma fibrinogen and coronary heart disease in urban Japanese. Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Sep 1;152(5):420-3.

26. Baller D, Gleichmann U, Miche E, Mannebach H, Seggewiss H. Clinical significance of the cardiovascular risk factor fibrinogen in secondary prevention. Versicherungsmedizin. 1995 Apr 1;47(2):55-60.

27. Ulrich MM, Alink GM, Kumarathasan P, et al. Health effects and time course of particulate matter on the cardiopulmonary system in rats with lung inflammation. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2002 Oct 25;65(20):1571-95.

28. Allen JD, Wilson JB, Tulley RT, Lefevre M, Welsch MA. Influence of age and normal plasma fibrinogen levels on flow-mediated dilation in healthy adults. Am J Cardiol. 2000 Sep 15;86(6):703-5.

29. Leschke M, Strauer BE. The significance of rheologic mechanisms in atherogenesis. Arzneimittelforschung. 1990 Mar;40(3A):356-62.

30. Drouet L, Bal dit SC. Is fibrinogen a predictor or a marker of the risk of cardiovascular events? Therapie. 2005 Mar;60(2):125-36.

31. Spuentrup E, Buecker A, Katoh M, et al. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of coronary thrombosis and pulmonary emboli with a novel fibrin-targeted contrast agent. Circulation. 2005 Mar 22;111(11):1377-82.

32. Reganon E, Vila V, Aznar J, et al. Studies on the functionality of newly synthesized fibrinogen after treatment of acute myocardial infarction with streptokinase, increase in the rate of fibrinopeptide release. Thromb Haemost. 1993 Dec 20;70(6):978-83.

33. Smith EB. Lipids and plasma fibrinogen: early and late composition of the atherosclerotic plaque. Cardiologia. 1994 Dec;39(12 Suppl 1):169-72.

34. Brown NJ, Staton CA, Rodgers GR, et al. Fibrinogen E fragment selectively disrupts the vasculature and inhibits the growth of tumours in a syngeneic murine model. Br J Cancer. 2002 Jun 5;86(11):1813-6.

35. Bennett JS. Platelet-fibrinogen interactions. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001;936:340-54.

36. Lebeau B, Chastang C, Brechot JM, et al. Subcutaneous heparin treatment increases survival in small cell lung cancer. “Petites Cellules” Group. Cancer. 1994 Jul 1;74(1):38-45.

37. Green D, Hull RD, Brant R, Pineo GF. Lower mortality in cancer patients treated with low-molecular-weight versus standard heparin. Lancet. 1992 Jun 13;339(8807):1476.

38. Vanschoonbeek K, Feijge MA, Paquay M, et al. Variable hypocoagulant effect of fish oil intake in humans: modulation of fibrinogen level and thrombin generation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004 Sep;24(9):1734-40.

39. de BA, Mennen LI, Hercberg S, Galan P. Evidence for a protective (synergistic?) effect of B-vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular diseases. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 May;58(5):732-44.

40. Uauy R, Valenzuela A. Marine oils: the health benefits of n-3 fatty acids. Nutrition. 2000 Jul;16(7-8):680-4.

41. Conquer JA, Cheryk LA, Chan E, Gentry PA, Holub BJ. Effect of supplementation with dietary seal oil on selected cardiovascular risk factors and hemostatic variables in healthy male subjects. Thromb Res. 1999 Nov 1;96(3):239-50.

42. Mori TA, Vandongen R, Beilin LJ, et al. Effects of varying dietary fat, fish, and fish oils on blood lipids in a randomized controlled trial in men at risk of heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994 May;59(5):1060-8.

43. Ghafoorunissa, Vani A, Laxmi R, Sesikeran B. Effects of dietary alpha-linolenic acid from blended oils on biochemical indices of coronary heart disease in Indians. Lipids. 2002 Nov;37(11):1077-86.

44. Andriamampandry MD, Leray C, Freund M, Cazenave JP, Gachet C. Antithrombotic effects of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat models of arterial and venous thrombosis. Thromb Res. 1999 Jan 1;93(1):9-16.

45. Available at: http://www.ahrq.gov/news/press/pr2004/omega3pr.htm. Accessed January 31, 2006.

46. Marckmann P, Bladbjerg EM, Jespersen J. Dietary fish oil (4 g daily) and cardiovascular risk markers in healthy men. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1997 Dec;17(12):3384-91.

47. Bruckner G. Microcirculation, vitamin E and omega 3 fatty acids: an overview. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1997;415:195-208.

48. Mori TA, Vandongen R, Beilin LJ, Burke V, Morris J, Ritchie J. Effects of varying dietary fat, fish, and fish oils on blood lipids in a randomized controlled trial in men at risk of heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 1994 May;59(5):1060-8.

49. Calder PC. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation: from molecular biology to the clinic. Lipids. 2003 Apr;38(4):343-52.

50. Jolly CA, Muthukumar A, Avula CP, Troyer D, Fernandes G. Life span is prolonged in food-restricted autoimmune-prone (NZB x NZW)F(1) mice fed a diet enriched with (n-3) fatty acids. J Nutr. 2001 Oct;131(10):2753-60.

51. Grimble RF. Nutritional modulation of immune function. Proc Nutr Soc. 2001 Aug;60(3):389-97.

52. Eschen O, Christensen JH, De CR, Schmidt EB. Soluble adhesion molecules in healthy subjects: a dose-response study using n-3 fatty acids. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2004 Aug;14(4):180-5.

53. Andrioli G, Carletto A, Guarini P, et al. Differential effects of dietary supplementation with fish oil or soy lecithin on human platelet adhesion. Thromb Haemost. 1999 Nov;82(5):1522-7.

54. Anon. Dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E after myocardial infarction: results of the GISSI-Prevenzione trial. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell’Infarto miocardico. Lancet. 1999 Aug 7;354(9177):447-455.

55. Singh RB, Niaz MA, Sharma JP, et al. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of fish oil and mustard oil in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction: the Indian experiment of infarct survival—4. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1997 Jul;11(3):485-91.

56. Nair SS, Leitch JW, Falconer J, Garg ML. Prevention of cardiac arrhythmia by dietary (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and their mechanism of action. J Nutr. 1997 Mar;127(3):383-93.

57. Flaten H, Hostmark AT, Kierulf P, et al. Fish-oil concentrate: effects on variables related to cardiovascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990 Aug;52(2):300-6.

58. Oosthuizen W, Vorster HH, Jerling JC, et al. Both fish oil and olive oil lowered plasma fibrinogen in women with high baseline fibrinogen levels. Thromb Haemost. 1994 Oct;72(4):557-62.

59. Chesney CM, Elam MB, Herd JA, et al. Effect of niacin, warfarin, and antioxidant therapy on coagulation parameters in patients with peripheral arterial disease in the Arterial Disease Multiple Intervention Trial (ADMIT). Am Heart J. 2000 Oct;140(4):631-6.

60. Philipp CS, Cisar LA, Saidi P, Kostis JB. Effect of niacin supplementation on fibrinogen levels in patients with peripheral vascular disease. Am J Cardiol. 1998 Sep 1;82(5):697-9, A9.

61. Johansson JO, Egberg N, splund-Carlson A, Carlson LA. Nicotinic acid treatment shifts the fibrinolytic balance favourably and decreases plasma fibrinogen in hypertriglyceridaemic men. J Cardiovasc Risk. 1997 Jun;4(3):165-71.

62. van Herpen-Broekmans WM, Klopping-Ketelaars IA, Bots ML, et al. Serum carotenoids and vitamins in relation to markers of endothelial function and inflammation. Eur J Epidemiol. 2004;19(10):915-21.

63. Ceriello A, Bortolotti N, Pirisi M, et al. Total plasma antioxidant capacity predicts thrombosis-prone status in NIDDM patients. Diabetes Care. 1997 Oct;20(10):1589-93.

64. Back O, Nilsson TK. Retinoids and fibrinolysis. Acta Derm Venereol. 1995 Jul;75(4):290-2.

65. Lagente V, Boichot E, Carre C, et al. Effects of the platelet activating factor antagonists BN 52021 and BN 50730 on antigen-induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness and eosinophil infiltration in lung from sensitized guinea-pigs. Clin Exp Allergy. 1993 Dec;23(12):1002-10.

66. Midorikawa S, Sanada H, Hashimoto S, Watanabe T. Enhancement by homocysteine of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene expression and secretion from vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 May 27;272(1):182-5.

67. Nurk E, Tell GS, Vollset SE, et al. Changes in lifestyle and plasma total homocysteine: the Hordaland Homocysteine Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004 May;79(5):812-9.

68. Malinow MR, Duell PB, Hess DL, et al. Reduction of plasma homocyst(e)ine levels by breakfast cereal fortified with folic acid in patients with coronary heart disease. N Engl J Med. 1998 Apr 9;338(15):1009-15.

69. Tucker KL, Mahnken B, Wilson PW, Jacques P, Selhub J. Folic acid fortification of the food supply. Potential benefits and risks for the elderly population. JAMA. 1996 Dec 18;276(23):1879-85.

70. Dudman NP, Guo XW, Gordon RB, Dawson PA, Wilcken DE. Human homocysteine catabolism: three major pathways and their relevance to development of arterial occlusive disease. J Nutr. 1996 Apr;126(4 Suppl):1295S-300S.

71. Stott DJ, MacIntosh G, Lowe GD, et al. Randomized controlled trial of homocysteine-lowering vitamin treatment in elderly patients with vascular disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Dec;82(6):1320-6.

72. Elian KM, Hoffer LJ. Hydroxocobalamin reduces hyperhomocysteinemia in end-stage renal disease. Metabolism. 2002 Jul;51(7):881-6.

73. Aleman G, Tovar AR, Torres N. Homocysteine metabolism and risk of cardiovascular diseases: importance of the nutritional status on folic acid, vitamins B6 and B12. Rev Invest Clin. 2001 Mar;53(2):141-51.

74. Bostom AG, Shemin D, Lapane KL, et al. High dose-B-vitamin treatment of hyperhomocysteinemia in dialysis patients. Kidney Int. 1996 Jan;49(1):147-52.

75. Schnyder G, Roffi M, Flammer Y, Pin R, Hess OM. Effect of homocysteine-lowering therapy with folic acid, vitamin B12, and vitamin B6 on clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention: the Swiss Heart study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2002 Aug 28;288(8):973-9.

76. Bordia AK. The effect of vitamin C on blood lipids, fibrinolytic activity and platelet adhesiveness in patients with coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis. 1980 Feb;35(2):181-7.

77. McCarty MF. Co-administration of equimolar doses of betaine may alleviate the hepatotoxic risk associated with niacin therapy. Med Hypotheses. 2000 Sep;55(3):189-94.

78. Bossavy JP, Thalamas C, Sagnard L, et al. A double-blind randomized comparison of combined aspirin and ticlopidine therapy versus aspirin or ticlopidine alone on experimental arterial thrombogenesis in humans. Blood. 1998 Sep 1;92(5):1518-25.

79. Kang WS, Lim IH, Yuk DY, et al. Antithrombotic activities of green tea catechins and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate. Thromb Res. 1999 Nov 1;96(3):229-37.

80. Logani S, Chen MC, Tran T, Le T, Raffa RB. Actions of ginkgo biloba related to potential utility for the treatment of conditions involving cerebral hypoxia. Life Sci. 2000 Aug 11;67(12):1389-96.

81. Rahman K, Billington D. Dietary supplementation with aged garlic extract inhibits ADP-induced platelet aggregation in humans. J Nutr. 2000 Nov;130(11):2662-5.

82. Azzi A, Breyer I, Feher M, et al. Specific cellular responses to alpha-tocopherol. J Nutr. 2000 Jul;130(7):1649-52.

83. Evangelista V, Manarini S, Dell’Elba G, et al. Clopidogrel inhibits platelet-leukocyte adhesion and platelet-dependent leukocyte activation. Thromb Haemost. 2005 Sep;94(3):568-77.

84. Jagroop IA, Matsagas MI, Geroulakos G, Mikhailidis DP. The effect of clopidogrel, aspirin and both antiplatelet drugs on platelet function in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Platelets. 2004 Mar;15(2):117-25.

85. de la Cruz JP, Romero MM, Sanchez P, et al. Antiplatelet effect of pentoxifylline in human whole blood. Gen Pharmacol. 1993 May;24(3):605-9.

86. Gaur SP, Garg RK, Kar AM, Srimal RC. Effect of anti-platelet therapy (aspirin + pentoxiphylline) on plasma lipids in patients of ischaemic stroke. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1993 Apr;37(2):158-60.

87. Selvin E, Coresh J, Golden SH, et al. Glycemic control and coronary heart disease risk in persons with and without diabetes: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Sep 12;165(16):1910-6.

88. Miller RA, Buehner G, Chang Y, et al. Methionine-deficient diet extends mouse lifespan, slows immune and lens aging, alters glucose, T4, IGF-I and insulin levels, and increases hepatocyte MIF levels and stress resistance. Aging Cell. 2005 Jun;4(3):119-25.

89. Jiang JC, Jaruga E, Repnevskaya MV, Jazwinski SM. An intervention resembling caloric restriction prolongs life span and retards aging in yeast. FASEB J. 2000 Nov;14(14):2135-7.

90. Lane MA, Ingram DK, Roth GS. Calorie restriction in nonhuman primates: effects on diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk. Toxicol Sci. 1999 Dec;52(2 Suppl):41-8.

91. Wanagat J, Allison DB, Weindruch R. Caloric intake and aging: mechanisms in rodents and a study in nonhuman primates. Toxicol Sci. 1999 Dec;52(2 Suppl):35-40.

92. Available at: http://www.lef.org/magazine/mag2004/jan2004_awsi_01.htm. Accessed January 31, 2006.

93. Bjornholt JV, Erikssen G, Aaser E, et al. Fasting blood glucose: an underestimated risk factor for cardiovascular death. Results from a 22-year follow-up of healthy nondiabetic men. Diabetes Care. 1999 Jan;22(1):45-9.

94. Zeller M, Steg PG, Ravisy J, et al. Prevalence and impact of metabolic syndrome on hospital outcomes in acute myocardial infarction. Arch Intern Med. 2005 May 23;165(10):1192-8.

95. Ainla T, Baburin A, Teesalu R, Rahu M. The association between hyperglycaemia on admission and 180-day mortality in acute myocardial infarction patients with and without diabetes. Diabet Med. 2005 Oct;22(10):1321-5.

96. Sasaki M, Saito T, Kubo N, et al. Alteration in risk factor accumulations of acute myocardial infarction during the last one decade: Analysis of patients admitted in Coronary Care Unit. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2005 Sep 20.

97. Stranders I, Diamant M, van Gelder RE, et al. Admission blood glucose level as risk indicator of death after myocardial infarction in patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Arch Intern Med. 2004 May 10;164(9):982-8.

98. Timmer JR, van dH, I, Ottervanger JP, et al. Prognostic value of admission glucose in non-diabetic patients with myocardial infarction. Am Heart J. 2004 Sep;148(3):399-404.

99. Wong VW, Ross DL, Park K, Boyages SC, Cheung NW. Hyperglycemia: still an important predictor of adverse outcomes following AMI in the reperfusion era. Diabetes Res Clin Prac. 2004 May;64(2):85-91.

Free Shipping in the Continental U.S. on Orders over $50
The statements made here have not been evaluated by the FDA. The foregoing statements are based upon sound and reliable studies, and are meant for informational purposes. Consult with your medical practitioner to determine the underlying cause of your symptoms. Please always check your purchase for possible allergins and correct dosage on the bottle before use.

While we work to ensure that product information is correct, on occasion manufacturers may alter their ingredient lists. Actual product packaging and materials may contain more and/or different information than that shown on our Web site. We recommend that you do not solely rely on the information presented and that you always read labels, warnings, and directions before using or consuming a product. For additional information about a product, please contact the manufacturer. Content on this site is for reference purposes and is not intended to substitute for advice given by a physician, pharmacist, or other licensed health-care professional. You should not use this information as self-diagnosis or for treating a health problem or disease. Contact your health-care provider immediately if you suspect that you have a medical problem. Information and statements regarding dietary supplements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition. Life Ex Online assumes no liability for inaccuracies or misstatements about products.