A Safer Form of Vitamin E
If you take vitamin E, there could be a side effect! Almost all vitamin E supplements contain alpha, but not gamma tocopherol. It doesn't matter whether you are taking natural or synthetic vitamin E, the form used is almost always the alpha. Just check the label of your vitamin E supplement and you will see that it only contains alpha tocopherol.
A study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (April 1997) suggests that it could be dangerous to take high doses of alpha tocopherol without also consuming gamma tocopherol. What made this study interesting was that it showed that high doses of alpha tocopherol can displace gamma tocopherol in tissues. While alpha tocopherol inhibits the production of free radicals to some degree, it is gamma tocopherol
that is required to trap and neutralize existing free radicals.
One dangerous compound that gamma tocopherol inhibits strongly is peroxynitrite. Peroxynitrite is harmful to cells because of its powerful oxidizing and nitrating properties. The scientists who wrote the National Academy of Sciences report state that vitamin E supplements should contain at least 20% gamma tocopherol. Most commercial vitamin E supplements do not contain any gamma tocopherol. This could explain some of the inconsistent results in controlled studies using only products containing alpha tocopherol.
You may think you've been getting the benefits of vitamin E by taking commercial supplements, but the odds are you aren't getting enough gamma tocopherol.Why You Need This Vitamin E Formula
The Life Extension Foundation is the first to offer a vitamin E supplement that contains the highest percentage of gamma tocopherol on the market.
Gamma tocopherol formula is designed to provide potent doses of free radical-trapping gamma tocopherol to those who are taking conventional vitamin E supplements, or it can be used as a
one-a-day vitamin E supplement on its own!Gamma Tocopherol Complements Alpha Tocopherol
Gamma-Tocopherol traps mutagenic electrophiles such as NO(x) and complements alpha-tocopherol: Physiological implications
Christen S.; Woodall A.A.; Shigenaga M.K.; Southwell-Keely P.T.; Duncan M.W.; Ames B.N.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (USA), 1997, 94/7 (3217-3222)
Peroxynitrite, a powerful mutagenic oxidant and nitrating species, is formed by the near diffusion-limited reaction of NO and O2 during activation of phagocytes. Chronic inflammation induced by phagocytes is a major contributor to cancer and other degenerative diseases.
We examined how gamma-tocopherol (gammaT), the principal form of vitamin E in the United States diet, and alpha-tocopherol (alphaT), the major form in supplements, protect against peroxynitrite-induced lipid oxidation.
Lipid hydroperoxide formation in liposomes (but not isolated low-density lipoprotein) exposed to peroxynitrite or the NO and O2 generator SIN-1 (3-morpholinosydnonimine) was inhibited more effectively by gammaT than alphaT. More importantly, nitration of gammaT at the nucleophilic 5-position, which proceeded in both liposomes and human low density lipoprotein at yields of similar-50% and similar-75%, respectively, was not affected by the presence of alphaT.
These results suggest that despite alphaT's action as an antioxidant, gammaT is required to effectively remove the peroxynitrite-derived nitrating species. We postulate that gammaT acts in vivo as a trap for membrane-soluble electrophilic nitrogen oxides and other electrophilic mutagens, forming stable carbon-centered adducts through the nucleophilic 5-position, which is blocked in alphaT. Because large doses of dietary alphaT displace gammaT in plasma and other tissues, the current wisdom of vitamin E supplementation with primarily alphaT should be reconsidered.
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