~ Do Vegetarians Live Longer? - References

References

1. Johnson RJ, Titte S, Cade JR, Rideout BA, Oliver WJ. Uric acid, evolution and primitive cultures. Semin Nephrol. 2005 Jan;25(1):3-8.

2. Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Colditz GA, et al. A prospective study of dietary fat and risk of prostate cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1993 Oct 6;85(19):1571-9.

3. Wunsch-Filho V. The epidemiology of oral and pharynx cancer in Brazil. Oral Oncol. 2002 Dec;38(8):737-46.

4. Nothlings U, Wilkens LR, Murphy SP, et al. Meat and fat intake as risk factors for pancreatic cancer: the multiethnic cohort study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Oct 5;97(19):1458-65.

5. Sinha R, Peters U, Cross AJ, et al. Meat, meat cooking methods and preservation, and risk for colorectal adenoma. Cancer Res. 2005 Sep 1;65(17):8034-41.

6. Correa Lima MP, Gomes-da-Silva MH. Colorectal cancer: lifestyle and dietary factors. Nutr Hosp. 2005 Jul;20(4):235-41.

7. Norat T, Bingham S, Ferrari P, et al. Meat, fish, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into cancer and nutrition. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2005 Jun 15;97(12):906-16.

8. Walker M, Aronson KJ, King W, et al. Dietary patterns and risk of prostate cancer in Ontario, Canada. Int J Cancer. 2005 Sep 10;116(4):592-8.

9. Chang ET, Smedby KE, Zhang SM, et al. Dietary factors and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in men and women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Feb;14(2):512-20.

10. Satia JA, Keku T, Galanko JA, et al. Diet, lifestyle, and genomic instability in the North Carolina Colon Cancer Study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2005 Feb;14(2):429-36.

11. Chao A, Thun MJ, Connell CJ, et al. Meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer. JAMA. 2005 Jan 12;293(2):172-82.

12. Gunter MJ, Probst-Hensch NM, Cortessis VK et al. Meat intake, cooking-related mutagens and risk of colorectal adenoma in a sigmoidoscopy-based case-control study. Carcinogenesis. 2005 Mar;26(3):637-42.

13. Larsson SC, Rafter J, Holmberg L, Bergkvist L, Wolk A. Red meat consumption and risk of cancers of the proximal colon, distal colon and rectum: the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Int J Cancer. 2005 Feb 20;113(5):829-34.

14. English DR, MacInnis RJ, Hodge AM, et al. Red meat, chicken, and fish consumption and risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Sep;13(9):1509-14.

15. Appleby P, Thorogood M, McPherson K, Mann J. Emergency appendicectomy and meat consumption in the UK. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1995 Dec;49(6):594-6.

16. Schulze MB, Hoffmann K, Manson JE, et al. Dietary pattern, inflammation, and incidence of type 2 diabetes in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Sep;82(3):675-84.

17. Seaman DR. The diet-induced proinflammatory state: a cause of chronic pain and other degenerative diseases? J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2002 Mar;25(3):168-79.

18. Grant WB. The role of meat in the expression of rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Nutr. 2000 Nov;84(5):589-95.

19. De Stefani E, Fierro L, Mendilaharsu M, et al. Meat intake, ‘mate’ drinking and renal cell cancer in Uruguay: a case-control study. Br J Cancer. 1998 Nov;78(9):1239-43.

20. Soroka N, Silverberg D, Greemland M, et al. Comparison of vegetable-based (soya) and an animal-based low-protein diet in predialysis chronic renal failure patients. Nephron. 1998;79(2):173-80.

21. McDougall J, Litzau K, Haver E, Saunders V, Spiller GA. Rapid reduction of serum cholesterol and blood pressure by a twelve-day, very low fat, strictly vegetarian diet. J Am Coll Nutr. 1995 Oct;14(5):491-6.

22. Ness AR, Powles JW. Fruit and vegetables, and cardiovascular disease: a review. Int J Epidemiol. 1997 Feb;26(1):1-13.

23. Sabate J. The contribution of vegetarian diets to human health. Forum Nutr. 2003;56:218-20.

24. Kwok TK, Woo J, Ho S, Sham A. Vegetarianism and ischemic heart disease in older Chinese women. J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Oct;19(5):622-7.

25. Key TJ, Fraser GE, Thorogood M, et al. Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Sep;70(3 Suppl):516S-24S.

26. Rimm EB, Ascherio A, Giovannucci E, et al. Vegetable, fruit, and cereal fiber intake and risk of coronary heart disease among men. JAMA. 1996 Feb 14;275(6):447-51.

27. Fraser GE. A comparison of first event coronary heart disease rates in two contrasting California populations. J Nutr Health Aging. 2005;9(1):53-8.

28. Key TJ, Thorogood M, Appleby PN, Burr ML. Dietary habits and mortality in 11,000 vegetarians and health conscious people: results of a 17 year follow up. BMJ. 1996 Sep 28;313(7060):775-9.

29. Thorogood M, Mann J, Appleby P, McPherson K. Risk of death from cancer and ischaemic heart disease in meat and non-meat eaters. BMJ. 1994 Jun 25;308(6945):1667-70.

30. Esselstyn CB, Jr., Ellis SG, Medendorp SV, Crowe TD. A strategy to arrest and reverse coronary artery disease: a 5-year longitudinal study of a single physician’s practice. J Fam Pract. 1995 Dec;41(6):560-8.

31. Available at: www.nytimes.com/specials/ women/warchive/971120_1599.html. Accessed October 5, 2005.

32. Renaud S, de Lorgeril M, Delaye J, et al. Cretan Mediterranean diet for prevention of coronary heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Jun;61(6 Suppl):1360S-7S.

33. Morris DL, Kritchevsky SB, Davis CE. Serum carotenoids and coronary heart disease. The lipid research clinics coronary primary prevention trial and follow-up study. JAMA. 1994 Nov 9;272(18):1439-41.

34. Gaziano JM, Manson JE, Branch LG, et al. A prospective study of consumption of carotenoids in fruits and vegetables and decreased cardiovascular mortality in the elderly. Ann Epidemiol. 1995 Jul;5(4):255-60.

35. Hertog MG, Feskens EJ, Hollman PC, Katan MB, Kromhout D. Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Lancet. 1993 Oct 23;342(8878):1007-11.

36. Geleijnse JM, Launer LJ, Hofman A, Pols HA, Witteman JC. Tea flavonoids may protect against atherosclerosis: the Rotterdam Study. Arch Intern Med. 1999 Oct 11;159(18):2170-4.

37. Joshipura KJ, Hu FB, Manson JE, et al. The effect of fruit and vegetable intake on risk for coronary heart disease. Ann Intern Med. 2001 Jun 19;134(12):1106-114.

38. Key TJ, Fraser GE, Thorogood M, et al. Mortality in vegetarians and non-vegetarians: a collaborative analysis of 8300 deaths among 76,000 men and women in five prospective studies. Public Health Nutr. 1998 Mar;1(1):33-41.

39. Singh PN, Sabate J, Fraser GE. Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans? Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Sep;78(3 Suppl):526S-32S.

40. Fraser GE, Shavlik DJ. Ten years of life: Is it a matter of choice? Arch Intern Med. 2001 Jul 9;161(13):1645-52.

41. Hipkiss AR. Glycation, ageing and carnosine: Are carnivorous diets beneficial? Mech Ageing Dev. 2005 Oct;126(10):1034-9.

42. Wu JT. Review of diabetes: identification of markers for early detection, glycemic control, and monitoring clinical complications. J Clin Lab Anal. 1993;7(5):293-300.

43. Ahmed N. Advanced glycation endproducts—role in pathology of diabetic complications. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2005 Jan;67(1):3-21.

44. Asif M, Egan J, Vasan S, et al. An advanced glycation endproduct cross-link breaker can reverse age-related increases in myocardial stiffness. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000 Mar 14;97(6):2809-13.

45. Aronson D. Cross-linking of glycated collagen in the pathogenesis of arterial and myocardial stiffening of aging and diabetes. J Hypertens. 2003 Jan;21(1):3-12.

46. Zieman S, Kass D. Advanced glycation end product cross-linking: pathophysiologic role and therapeutic target in cardiovascular disease. Congest Heart Fail. 2004 May;10(3):144-9.

47. Lyons TJ. Glycation and oxidation: a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Am J Cardiol. 1993 Feb 25;71(6):26B-31B.

48. Franke S, Dawczynski J, Strobel J, et al. Increased levels of advanced glycation end products in human cataractous lenses. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2003 May;29(5):998-1004.

49. Pokupec R, Kalauz M, Turk N, Turk Z. Advanced glycation endproducts in human diabetic and non-diabetic cataractous lenses. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2003 May;241(5):378-84.

50. Taguchi A, Blood DC, del Toro G, et al. Blockade of RAGE-amphoterin signalling suppresses tumour growth and metastases. Nature. 2000 May 18;405(6784):354-60.

51. Bhawal UK, Ozaki Y, Nishimura M, et al. Association of expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products and invasive activity of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oncology. 2005;69(3):246-55.

52. Takada M, Hirata K, Ajiki T, Suzuki Y, Kuroda Y. Expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and MMP-9 in human pancreatic cancer cells. Hepatogastroenterology. 2004 Jul;51(58):928-30.

53. Kuniyasu H, Chihara Y, Takahashi T. Co-expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products and the ligand amphoterin associates closely with metastasis of colorectal cancer. Oncol Rep. 2003 Mar;10(2):445-8.

54. Kuniyasu H, Oue N, Wakikawa A, et al. Expression of receptors for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) is closely associated with the invasive and metastatic activity of gastric cancer. J Pathol. 2002 Feb;196(2):163-70.

55. Takeuchi M, Kikuchi S, Sasaki N, et al. Involvement of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in Alzheimer’s disease. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2004 Feb;1(1):39-46.

56. Yan SD, Stern D, Kane MD, et al. RAGE-Abeta interactions in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 1998 Jun;12(2-3):167-73.

57. Thome J, Kornhuber J, Munch G, et al. New hypothesis on etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer syndrome. Advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Nervenarzt. 1996 Nov;67(11):924-9.

58. Krajcovicova-Kudlackova M, Sebekova K, Schinzel R, Klvanova J. Advanced glycation end products and nutrition. Physiol Res. 2002;51(3):313-6.

59. Sebekova K, Krajcovicova-Kudlackova M, Schinzel R, et al. Plasma levels of advanced glycation end products in healthy, long-term vegetarians and subjects on a western mixed diet. Eur J Nutr. 2001 Dec;40(6):275-81.

60. Park YJ, Volpe SL, Decker EA. Quantitation of carnosine in humans plasma after dietary consumption of beef. J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Jun 15;53(12):4736-9.

61. Available at: www.lef.org/magazine/ mag2001/jan2001_report_carnosine_1.html. Accessed October 5, 2005.

62. Quinn PJ, Boldyrev AA, Formazuyk VE. Carnosine: its properties, functions and potential therapeutic applications. Mol Aspects Med. 1992;13(5):379-444.

63. Stadtman ER. Protein oxidation and aging. Science. 1992 Aug 28;257(5074):1220-4.

64. Bierhaus A, Hofmann MA, Ziegler R, Nawroth PP. AGEs and their interaction with AGE-receptors in vascular disease and diabetes mellitus. I. The AGE concept. Cardiovasc Res. 1998 Mar;37(3):586-600.

65. Munch G, Schinzel R, Loske C, et al. Alzheimer’s disease—synergistic effects of glucose deficit, oxidative stress and advanced glycation endproducts. J Neural Transm. 1998;105(4-5):439-61.

66. Hipkiss AR, Michaelis J, Syrris P. Non-enzymatic glycosylation of the dipeptide L-carnosine, a potential anti-protein-cross- linking agent. FEBS Lett. 1995 Aug 28;371(1):81-5.

67. Munch G, Mayer S, Michaelis J, et al. Influence of advanced glycation end-products and AGE-inhibitors on nucleation-dependent polymerization of beta-amyloid peptide. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1997 Feb 27;1360(1):17-29.

68. Hipkiss AR, Chana H. Carnosine protects proteins against methylglyoxal-mediated modifications. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 Jul 9;248(1):28-32.

69. Wang AM, Ma C, Xie ZH, Shen F. Use of carnosine as a natural anti-senescence drug for human beings. Biochemistry (Mosc.). 2000 Jul;65(7):869-71.

70. Brownson C, Hipkiss AR. Carnosine reacts with a glycated protein. Free Radic Biol Med. 2000 May 15;28(10):1564-70.

71. Hipkiss AR, Preston JE, Himswoth DT, Worthington VC, Abbot NJ. Protective effects of carnosine against malondialdehyde-induced toxicity towards cultured rat brain endothelial cells. Neurosci Lett. 1997 Dec 5;238(3):135-8.

72. Yuneva MO, Bulygina ER, Gallant SC, et al. Effect of carnosine on age-induced changes in senescence-accelerated mice. J Anti-Aging Med. 1999;2(4):337-42.

73. Boldyrev AA, Stvolinsky SL, Tyulina OV, et al. Biochemical and physiological evidence that carnosine is an endogenous neuroprotector against free radicals. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 1997 Apr;17(2):259-71.

74. Lovell MA, Robertson JD, Teesdale WJ, Campbell JL, Markesbery WR. Copper, iron and zinc in Alzheimer’s disease senile plaques. J Neurol Sci. 1998 Jun 11;158(1):47-52.

75. Lee JY, Friedman JE, Angel I, Kozak A, Koh JY. The lipophilic metal chelator DP-109 reduces amyloid pathology in brains of human beta-amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice. Neurobiol Aging. 2004 Nov;25(10):1315-21.

76. Hipkiss AR, Preston JE, Himsworth DT, et al. Pluripotent protective effects of carnosine, a naturally occurring dipeptide. Ann NY Acad Sci. 1998 Nov 20;854:37-53.

77. McFarland GA, Holliday R. Retardation of the senescence of cultured human diploid fibroblasts by carnosine. Exp Cell Res. 1994 Jun;212(2):167-75.

78. Hipkiss AR, Michaelis J, Syrris P, et al. Strategies for the extension of human life span. Perspect Hum Biol. 1995;1:59-70.

79. McFarland GA, Holliday R. Further evidence for the rejuvenating effects of the dipeptide L-carnosine on cultured human diploid fibroblasts. Exp Gerontol. 1999 Jan;34(1):35-45.

80. Stuerenburg HJ, Kunze K. Concentrations of free carnosine (a putative membrane-protective antioxidant) in human muscle biopsies and rat muscles. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 1999 Sep;29(2):107-13.

81. Burcham PC, Kerr PG, Fontaine F. The antihypertensive hydralazine is an efficient scavenger of acrolein. Redox Rep. 2000;5(1):47-9.

82. Zaloga GP, Roberts PR, Black KW, et al. Carnosine is a novel peptide modulator of intracellular calcium and contractility in cardiac cells. Am J Physiol. 1997 Jan;272(1 Pt 2):H462-8.

83. Howitz KT, Bitterman KJ, Cohen HY, et al. Small molecule activators of sirtuins extend Saccharomyces cerevisiae lifespan. Nature. 2003 Sep 11;425(6954):191-6.


Free Shipping in the Continental U.S. on Orders over $50
The statements made here have not been evaluated by the FDA. The foregoing statements are based upon sound and reliable studies, and are meant for informational purposes. Consult with your medical practitioner to determine the underlying cause of your symptoms. Please always check your purchase for possible allergins and correct dosage on the bottle before use.

While we work to ensure that product information is correct, on occasion manufacturers may alter their ingredient lists. Actual product packaging and materials may contain more and/or different information than that shown on our Web site. We recommend that you do not solely rely on the information presented and that you always read labels, warnings, and directions before using or consuming a product. For additional information about a product, please contact the manufacturer. Content on this site is for reference purposes and is not intended to substitute for advice given by a physician, pharmacist, or other licensed health-care professional. You should not use this information as self-diagnosis or for treating a health problem or disease. Contact your health-care provider immediately if you suspect that you have a medical problem. Information and statements regarding dietary supplements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition. Life Ex Online assumes no liability for inaccuracies or misstatements about products.