~ Dec 07 Managing An Overactive Thyroid - References


1. Laurberg P, Andersen S, Bulow P, I, Carle A. Hypothyroidism in the elderly: pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment. Drugs Aging. 2005;22(1):23-38.

2. Jayakumar RV. Hypothyroidism. J Indian Med Assoc. 2006 Oct;104(10):557-60, 562.

3. Heitman B, Irizarry A. Hypothyroidism: common complaints, perplexing diagnosis. Nurse Pract. 1995 Mar;20(3):54-60.

4. Caturegli P, Kimura H, Rocchi R, Rose NR. Autoimmune thyroid diseases. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2007 Jan;19(1):44-8.

5. Maji D. Hyperthyroidism. J Indian Med Assoc. 2006 Oct;104(10):563-7.

6. Sinclair C, Gilchrist JM, Hennessey JV, Kandula M. Muscle carnitine in hypo- and hyperthyroidism. Muscle Nerve. 2005 Sep;32(3):357-9.

7. Nayak B, Burman K. Thyrotoxicosis and thyroid storm. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2006 Dec;35(4):663-86, vii.

8. Burch HB, Wartofsky L. Life-threatening thyrotoxicosis. Thyroid storm. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 1993 Jun;22(2):263-77.

9. Olson BR, Klein I, Benner R, et al. Hyperthyroid myopathy and the response to treatment. Thyroid. 1991;1(2):137-41.

10. Strack E, Woratz G, Rotzsch W. Effects of carnitine in hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. Endokrinologie. 1959 Sep;38:218-25.

11. Strack E, Bloesche H, Bemm H, Rotzsch W. Use of L-carnitine in hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. Dtsch Z Verdau Stoffwechselkr. 1962 Apr;21:253-9.

12. Willgerodt H, Rotzsch W, Strack E. Effect of carnitine of the accumulation of iodine in the thyroid gland. Dtsch Z Verdau Stoffwechselkr. 1965 Aug;25(3):127-35.

13. Emmrich R. New methods for the diagnosis and therapy of hyperthyroidism. Munch Med Wochenschr. 1967 Oct 27;109(43):2217-21.

14. Maebashi M, Kawamura N, Sato M, Imamura A, Yoshinaga K. Urinary excretion of carnitine in patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism: augmentation by thyroid hormone. Metabolism. 1977 Apr;26(4):351-6.

15. Fosslien E. Review: Mitochondrial medicine—cardiomyopathy caused by defective oxidative phosphorylation. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2003;33(4):371-95.

16. Jacob C, Belleville F. L-carnitine: metabolism, functions and value in pathology. Pathol Biol (Paris). 1992 Nov;40(9):910-9.

17. Sestoft L. Metabolic aspects of the calorigenic effect of thyroid hormone in mammals. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1980 Nov;13(5):489-506.

18. Turakulov I, Saatov TS, Rakhimdzhanova MT, Ismailkhodzhaeva G. Oxidation of palmityl carnitine in mitochondria of rat heart and liver tissue under conditions of thyroid pathology. Vopr Med Khim. 1981 Mar;27(2):197-200.

19. Suzuki M, Tokuyama K, Yamane A. Carnitine metabolism in thyroid hormone treated rats and mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 1983 Aug;29(4):413-28.

20. Galland S, Georges B, Le Borgne F, Conductier G, Dias JV, Demarquoy J. Thyroid hormone controls carnitine status through modifications of gamma-butyrobetaine hydroxylase activity and gene expression. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2002 Mar;59(3):540-5.

21. Benvenga S, Amato A, Calvani M, Trimarchi F. Effects of carnitine on thyroid hormone action. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004 Nov;1033:158-67.

22. Muller MJ, Koster H, Seitz HJ. Effect of thyroid state on ketogenic capacity of the isolated perfused liver of starved rats. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1981 Dec 23;666(3):475-81.

23. DeFelice SL, Gilgore SG. The antagonistic effect of carnitine in hyperthyroidism. Preliminary report. J New Drugs. 1966 Nov;6(6):351-3.

24. Gilgore SG, DeFelice SL. Evaluation of carnitine—an antagonist of thyroid hormone. Clinical pharmacology report. J New Drugs. 1966 Nov;6(6):349-50.

25. Benvenga S, Lakshmanan M, Trimarchi F. Carnitine is a naturally occurring inhibitor of thyroid hormone nuclear uptake. Thyroid. 2000 Dec;10(12):1043-50.

26. Benvenga S, Ruggeri RM, Russo A, et al. Usefulness of L-carnitine, a naturally occurring peripheral antagonist of thyroid hormone action, in iatrogenic hyperthyroidism: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001 Aug;86(8):3579-94.

27. Migneco A, Ojetti V, Testa A, De LA, Gentiloni SN. Management of thyrotoxic crisis. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2005 Jan;9(1):69-74.

28. Benvenga S, Lapa D, Cannavo S, Trimarchi F. Successive thyroid storms treated with L-carnitine and low doses of methimazole. Am J Med. 2003 Oct 1;115(5):417-8.

29. Faivre S, Chieze S, Delbaldo C, et al. Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of aplidine, a new marine cyclodepsipeptide in patients with advanced malignancies. J Clin Oncol. 2005 Nov 1;23(31):7871-80.

Free Shipping in the Continental U.S. on Orders over $50
The statements made here have not been evaluated by the FDA. The foregoing statements are based upon sound and reliable studies, and are meant for informational purposes. Consult with your medical practitioner to determine the underlying cause of your symptoms. Please always check your purchase for possible allergins and correct dosage on the bottle before use.

While we work to ensure that product information is correct, on occasion manufacturers may alter their ingredient lists. Actual product packaging and materials may contain more and/or different information than that shown on our Web site. We recommend that you do not solely rely on the information presented and that you always read labels, warnings, and directions before using or consuming a product. For additional information about a product, please contact the manufacturer. Content on this site is for reference purposes and is not intended to substitute for advice given by a physician, pharmacist, or other licensed health-care professional. You should not use this information as self-diagnosis or for treating a health problem or disease. Contact your health-care provider immediately if you suspect that you have a medical problem. Information and statements regarding dietary supplements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition. Life Ex Online assumes no liability for inaccuracies or misstatements about products.