~ Curcumin Helps Prevent Breast Cancer Metastasis in Mice

A study published in the October 15 2005 issue of the American Association for Cancer Research journal Clinical Cancer Research http://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/ found that curcumin, which occurs in the spice turmeric, prevents breast cancer from spreading to the lungs of mice given the compound.

Researchers at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center injected 60 mice with human metastatic breast cancer cells. When the tumors reached the size of 10 millimeters they were surgically removed.

Five days later half the mice were provided with diets enhanced with curcumin, while the remainder received standard diets until the study's conclusion.

Fifteen of the mice in each of these groups were injected with paclitaxel at days 10, 17 and 24 following tumor removal. Although paclitaxel is effective in itsability to treat breast cancer, it also encourages metastasis when used for a long period of time and is therefore not effective to treat the advanced form of the disease.

Upon examination of the animals' lungs five weeks after the tumors were removed, 96 percent of the mice who received neither curcumin nor paclitaxel had visible metastases.

While paclitaxel alone elicited a modest reduction in visible metastases, curcumin provided significant reduction, and the combination of curcumin and paclitaxel prevented these macrometastases entirely.

Microscopic metastases were found in only 28 percent of the mice receiving the curcumin/drug combination, and these consisted of only a few cells, suggesting that the treatment prevented the growth of tumor cells present in the lungs before the primary tumors were removed.

The toxicity of paclitaxel activates an inflammatory protein, (nuclear factor kappa B) that induces metastasis, but curcumin inhibits this response. The finding that the addition of curcumin to paclitaxel resulted in reduced could enable a lower dose of the potentially toxic drug to be administered.

Lead researcher and professor of cancer medicine at M. D. Anderson's Department of Experimental Therapeutics, Bharat Aggarwal, PhD, commented, "We are excited about the results of the study and the possible implications for taking the findings into the clinic in the next several years. At this time, advanced breast cancer is a difficult foe to fight with few proven treatments available after surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy."
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