~ Cortisol, Stress, and Health - Keeping Cortisol Under Control - References


1. Tsigos C, Chrousos GP. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, neuroendocrine factors and stress. J Psychosom Res. 2002 Oct;53(4):865-71.

2. Carrasco GA, Van de Kar LD. Neuroendocrine pharmacology of stress. Eur J Pharmacol. 2003 Feb 28;463(1-3):235-72.

3. De Kloet ER. Hormones and the stressed brain. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004 Jun;1018:1-15.

4. Kudielka BM, Buske-Kirschbaum A, Hellhammer DH, Kirschbaum C. HPA axis responses to laboratory psychosocial stress in healthy elderly adults, younger adults, and children: impact of age and gender. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2004 Jan;29(1):83-98.

5. Bauer ME. Stress, glucocorticoids and ageing of the immune system. Stress. 2005 Mar;8(1):69-83.

6. Valenti G. Neuroendocrine hypothesis of aging: the role of corticoadrenal steroids. J Endocrinol Invest. 2004;27(6 Suppl):62-3.

7. Ferrari E, Mirani M, Barili L, et al. Cognitive and affective disorders in the elderly: a neuroendocrine study. Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl. 2004;(9):171-82.

8. Selye H. A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. 1936. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1998;10(2):230-1.

9. Selye H. The general adaptation syndrome and the diseases of adaptation. J Clin Endo. 1946;6:117-20.

10. Schedlowski M, Wiechert D, Wagner TO, Tewes U. Acute psychological stress increases plasma levels of cortisol, prolactin and TSH. Life Sci. 1992;50(17):1201-5.

11. Schulz P, Kirschbaum C, Prubner J, Hellhammer D. Increased free cortisol secretion after awakening in chronically stressed individuals due to work overload. Stress Med. 1998;14:91-7.

12. Lac G, Chamoux A. Elevated salivary cortisol levels as a result of sleep deprivation in a shift worker. Occup Med (Lond). 2003 Mar;53(2):143-5.

13. Cohen S. Psychological stress and susceptibility to upper respiratory infections. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995 Oct;152(4 Pt 2):S53-8.

14. Buljevac D, Hop WC, Reedeker W, et al. Self reported stressful life events and exacerbations in multiple sclerosis: prospective study. BMJ. 2003 Sep 20;327(7416):646.

15. Locke GR, III, Weaver AL, Melton LJ, III, Talley NJ. Psychosocial factors are linked to functional gastrointestinal disorders: a population based nested case-control study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2004 Feb;99(2):350-7.

16. Lea R, Whorwell PJ. Psychological influences on the irritable bowel syndrome. Minerva Med. 2004 Oct;95(5):443-50.

17. van der PG, Antoni MH, Heijnen CJ. Elevated basal cortisol levels and attenuated ACTH and cortisol responses to a behavioral challenge in women with metastatic breast cancer. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1996 May;21(4):361-74.

18. Reiche EM, Nunes SO, Morimoto HK. Stress, depression, the immune system, and cancer. Lancet Oncol. 2004 Oct;5(10):617-25.

19. Allison TG, Williams DE, Miller TD, et al. Medical and economic costs of psychologic distress in patients with coronary artery disease. Mayo Clin Proc. 1995 Aug;70(8):734-42.

20. Ohlin B, Nilsson PM, Nilsson JA, Berglund G. Chronic psychosocial stress predicts long-term cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in middle-aged men. Eur Heart J. 2004 May;25(10):867-73.

21. Grundman M, Thal LJ. Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease: rationale and strategies. Neurol Clin. 2000 Nov;18(4):807-28.

22. Mayeux R, Sano M. Treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. N Engl J Med. 1999 Nov 25;341(22):1670-9.

23. Ferrari E, Casarotti D, Muzzoni B, et al. Age-related changes of the adrenal secretory pattern: possible role in pathological brain aging. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2001 Nov;37(1-3):294-300.

24. Raber J. Detrimental effects of chronic hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation. From obesity to memory deficits. Mol Neurobiol. 1998 Aug;18(1):1-22.

25. Lee AL, Ogle WO, Sapolsky RM. Stress and depression: possible links to neuron death in the hippocampus. Bipolar Disord. 2002 Apr;4(2):117-28.

26. Carlson LE, Sherwin BB. Relationships among cortisol (CRT), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS), and memory in a longitudinal study of healthy elderly men and women. Neurobiol Aging. 1999 May;20(3):315-24.

27. Wilson RS, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al. Proneness to psychological distress is associated with risk of Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology. 2003 Dec 9;61(11):1479-85.

28. Traustadottir T, Bosch PR, Matt KS. The HPA axis response to stress in women: effects of aging and fitness. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2005 May;30(4):392-402.

29. MacLean CR, Walton KG, Wenneberg SR, et al. Effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on adaptive mechanisms: changes in hormone levels and responses to stress after 4 months of practice. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1997 May;22(4):277-95.

30. Cruess DG, Antoni MH, McGregor BA, et al. Cognitive-behavioral stress management reduces serum cortisol by enhancing benefit finding among women being treated for early stage breast cancer. Psychosom Med. 2000 May;62(3):304-8.

31. Peters EM, Anderson R, Nieman DC, Fickl H, Jogessar V. Vitamin C supplementation attenuates the increases in circulating cortisol, adrenaline and anti-inflammatory polypeptides following ultramarathon running. Int J Sports Med. 2001 Oct;22(7):537-43.

32. Brody S, Preut R, Schommer K, Schurmeyer TH. A randomized controlled trial of high dose ascorbic acid for reduction of blood pressure, cortisol, and subjective responses to psychological stress. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2002 Jan;159(3):319-24.

33. Delarue J, Matzinger O, Binnert C, Schneeiter P, Chiolero P, Tappy L. Fish oil prevents the adrenal activation elicited by mental stress in healthy men. Diabetes Metab. 2003 Jun;29(3):289-95.

34. Monteleone P, Maj M, Beinat L, Natale M, Kemali D. Blunting by chronic phosphatidylserine administration of the stress-induced activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy men. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1992;42(4):385-8.

35. Monteleone P, Beinat L, Tanzillo C, Maj M, Kemali D. Effects of phosphatidylserine on the neuroendocrine response to physical stress in humans. Neuroendocrinology. 1990 Sep;52(3):243-8.

36. Hellhammer J, Fries E, Buss C, et al. Effects of soy lecithin phosphatidic acid and phosphatidylserine complex (PAS) on the endocrine and psychological responses to mental stress. Stress. 2004 Jun;7(2):119-26.

37. Kelly GS. Rhodiola rosea: a possible plant adaptogen. Altern Med Rev. 2001 Jun;6(3):293-302.

38. Kelly GS. Nutritional and botanical interventions to assist with the adaptation to stress. Altern Med Rev. 1999 Aug;4(4):249-65.

39. Nocerino E, Amato M, Izzo AA. The aphrodisiac and adaptogenic properties of ginseng. Fitoterapia. 2000 Aug;71 Suppl 1:S1-5.

40. Kanowski S, Herrmann WM, Stephan K, Wierich W, Horr R. Proof of efficacy of the ginkgo biloba special extract EGb 761 in outpatients suffering from mild to moderate primary degenerative dementia of the Alzheimer type or multi-infarct dementia. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1996 Mar;29(2):47-56.

41. Le Bars PL, Katz MM, Berman N, et al. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial of an extract of Ginkgo biloba for dementia. North American EGb Study Group. JAMA. 1997 Oct 22;278(16):1327-32.

42. Le Bars PL, Kieser M, Itil KZ. A 26-week analysis of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in dementia. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2000 Jul;11(4):230-7.

43. Jezova D, Duncko R, Lassanova M, Kriska M, Moncek F. Reduction of rise in blood pressure and cortisol release during stress by Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) in healthy volunteers. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002 Sep;53(3):337-48.

44. Ferrari E, Cravello L, Muzzoni B, et al. Age-related changes of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis: pathophysiological correlates. Eur J Endocrinol. 2001 Apr;144(4):319-29.

45. Epel ES, McEwen B, Seeman T, et al. Stress and body shape: Stress-induced cortisol secretion is consistently greater among women with central fat. Psychosomatic Med. 2000 Sept;62(5):623-32.

46. Gluck ME, Geliebter A, Lorence M. Cortisol stress response is positively correlated with central obesity in obese women with binge eating disorder (BED) before and after cognitive-behavioral treatment. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1032:202-7.

Free Shipping in the Continental U.S. on Orders over $50
The statements made here have not been evaluated by the FDA. The foregoing statements are based upon sound and reliable studies, and are meant for informational purposes. Consult with your medical practitioner to determine the underlying cause of your symptoms. Please always check your purchase for possible allergins and correct dosage on the bottle before use.

While we work to ensure that product information is correct, on occasion manufacturers may alter their ingredient lists. Actual product packaging and materials may contain more and/or different information than that shown on our Web site. We recommend that you do not solely rely on the information presented and that you always read labels, warnings, and directions before using or consuming a product. For additional information about a product, please contact the manufacturer. Content on this site is for reference purposes and is not intended to substitute for advice given by a physician, pharmacist, or other licensed health-care professional. You should not use this information as self-diagnosis or for treating a health problem or disease. Contact your health-care provider immediately if you suspect that you have a medical problem. Information and statements regarding dietary supplements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition. Life Ex Online assumes no liability for inaccuracies or misstatements about products.