~Cataracts, Part 5 - References


1. Steinberg EP, Javitt JC et al. The content and cost of cataract surgery. Arch Ophthalmol. 1993 Aug;111(8):1041-9.

2. West SK, Valmadrid CT. Epidemiology of risk factors for age-related cataract. Surv Ophthalmol. 1995 Jan;39(4):323-34.

3. Ellwein LB, Friedlin V et al. Use of eye care services among the 1991 Medicare population. Ophthalmology. 1996 Nov;103(11):1732-43.

4. Congdon N, Vingerling JR et al. Prevalence of cataract and pseudophakia/aphakia among adults in the United States. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004 Apr;122(4):487-94.

5. Kannabiran C, Balasubramanian D. Molecular genetics of cataract. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2000 Mar;48(1):5-13.

6. Medline Website. Article on Cataract page. Available at: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/cataract.html. Accessed 2004.

7. Delcourt C, Cristol JP et al. Risk factors for cortical, nuclear, and posterior subcapsular cataracts: the POLA study. Pathologies Oculaires Liees a l'Age. Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Mar 1;151(5):497-504.

8. Klein BE, Klein R et al. Is there evidence of an estrogen effect on age-related lens opacities? The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Arch Ophthalmol. 1994 Jan;112(1):85-91.

9. Cumming RG, Mitchell P. Hormone replacement therapy, reproductive factors, and cataract. The Blue Mountains Eye Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1997 Feb 1;145(3):242-9.

10. Heck DE, Gerecke DR et al. Solar ultraviolet radiation as a trigger of cell signal transduction. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2004 Mar 15;195(3):288-97.

11. Worgul BV, Merriam GR et al. Lens epithelium and radiation cataract. I. Preliminary studies. Arch Ophthalmol. 1976 Jun;94(6):996-9.

12. Sarma U, Brunner E et al. Nutrition and the epidemiology of cataract and age-related maculopathy. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1994 Jan;48(1):1-8.

13. Waagbo R, Hamre K et al. Cataract formation in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolt relative to dietary pro- and antioxidants and lipid level. J Fish Dis. 2003 Apr;26(4):213-29.

14. Klein BE, Klein R et al. Socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and the 10-year incidence of age-related cataracts. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003 Sep;136(3):506-12.

15. Nirmalan PK, Robin AL et al. Risk factors for age related cataract in a rural population of southern India: the Aravind Comprehensive Eye Study.Br J Ophthalmol. 2004 Aug;88(8):989-94.

16. Klein BE, Klein R et al. Incidence of age-related cataract over a 10-year interval: the Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2002 Nov;109(11):2052-7.

17. Hodge WG, Whitcher JP et al. Risk factors for age-related cataracts. Epidemiol Rev. 1995;17(2):336-46.

18. Agre P, Sasaki S et al. Aquaporins: a family of water channel proteins. Am J Physiol. 1993 Sep;265(3 Pt 2):F461.

19. Dahm R, van Marle J et al. Gap junctions containing alpha8-connexin (MP70) in the adult mammalian lens epithelium suggests a re-evaluation of its role in the lens. Exp Eye Res. 1999 Jul;69(1):45-56.

20. Beebe D. The lens. In: Kaufman PL, Adler FH Eds. Adler's Physiology of the Eye: Clinical Application, Tenth Edition. St. Louis: Mosby; 2003:117-58.

21. Litt M, Kramer P et al. Autosomal dominant congenital cataract associated with a missense mutation in the human alpha crystallin gene CRYAA. Hum Mol Genet. 1998 Mar;7(3):471-4.

22. Mackay D, Ionides A et al. Connexin46 mutations in autosomal dominant congenital cataract. Am J Hum Genet. 1999 May;64(5):1357-64.

23. Francis PJ, Moore AT. Genetics of childhood cataract. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2004 Feb;15(1):10-5.

24. Lasa MS, Datiles MB III et al. Potential vision tests in patients with cataracts. Ophthalmology. 1995 Jul;102(7):1007-11.

25. AAO (American Academy of Ophthalmology). Preferred Practice Pattern: Cataract in the Otherwise Healthy Adult Eye. San Francisco: American Academy of Ophthalmology. Available at: http://www.aao.org/aao/education/library/index.cfm. Accessed December 2004.

26. Regan D, Giaschi DE et al. Measurement of glare sensitivity in cataract patients using low-contrast letter charts. Ophthalmic Physiol Opt. 1993 Apr;13(2):115-23.

27. Chitkara D. Morphology and visual effects of lens opacities of cataract. In: Yanoff M, Duker J Eds. Ophthalmology, Second Edition. St. Louis: Mosby; 2004:280-2 (chapter 37).

28. Aging Eye Website. Cataract symptoms page. Available at: http://www.agingeye.com/diseases/cataract. Accessed 2004

29. Harding J. The normal lens. In: Harding J Ed. Cataract: Biochemisty, Epidemiology, and Pharmacology. London: Chapman and Hall; 1991.

30. Spector A, Wang GM et al. A brief photochemically induced oxidative insult causes irreversible lens damage and cataract. II. Mechanism of action. Exp Eye Res. 1995 May;60(5):483-93.

31. Kodama T, Takemoto L. Characterization of disulfide-linked crystallins associated with human cataractous lens membranes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1988 Jan;29(1):145-9.

32. Bova LM, Sweeney MH et al. Major changes in human ocular UV protection with age. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001 Jan;42(1):200-5.

33. Sweeney MH, Truscott RJ. An impediment to glutathione diffusion in older normal human lenses: a possible precondition for nuclear cataract. Exp Eye Res. 1998 Nov;67(5):587-95.

34. Benedek GB, Pande J et al. Theoretical and experimental basis for the inhibition of cataract. Prog Retin Eye Res. 1999 May;18(3):391-402.

35. Clark JI, Clark JM. Lens cytoplasmic phase separation. Int Rev Cytol. 2000;192:171-87.

36. Duindam JJ, Vrensen GF et al. Cholesterol, phospholipid, and protein changes in focal opacities in the human eye lens. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1998 Jan;39(1):94-103.

37. Marcantonio JM, Duncan G et al. Calcium-induced opacification and loss of protein in the organ-cultured bovine lens. Exp Eye Res. 1986 Jun;42(6):617-30.

38. Jobling AI, Augusteyn RC. What causes steroid cataracts? A review of steroid-induced posterior subcapsular cataracts. Clin Exp Optom. 2002 Mar;85(2):61-75.

39. Eshaghian J, Streeten BW. Human posterior subcapsular cataract. An ultrastructural study of the posteriorly migrating cells. Arch Ophthalmol. 1980 Jan;98(1):134-43.

40. Berman E. The lens. In: Blakemore C Ed. Biochemistry of the Eye. New York: Plenum Press; 1991:201-90.

41. Fagerholm PP, Philipson BT et al. Normal human lens--the distribution of protein. Exp Eye Res. 1981 Dec;33(6):615-20.

42. Boulton M. Anatomy of the lens. In: Yanoff M, Duker J Eds. Ophthalmology, Second Edition. St. Louis: Mosby; 2004:241-5 (chapter 28).

43. Bassnett S, Beebe DC. Coincident loss of mitochondria and nuclei during lens fiber cell differentiation. Dev Dyn. 1992 Jun;194(2):85-93.

44. Scammon R E, Wilmer HA. Growth of the components of the human eyeball. II. Comparison of the calculated volumes of the eyes of the newborn and of adults, and their components. Arch Ophthal. 1950 Apr;43(4):620-37.

45. Shestopalov VI, Bassnett S. Exogenous gene expression and protein targeting in lens fiber cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1999 Jun;40(7):1435-43.

46. Farnsworth PN, Mauriello JA et al. Surface ultrastructure of the human lens capsule and zonular attachments. Invest Ophthalmol. 1976 Jan;15(1):36-40.

47. Sivak JG, Dovrat A. Aging and the optical quality of the rat crystalline lens. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1983 Sep;24(9):1162-6.

48. Delaye M, Tardieu A. Short-range order of crystallin proteins accounts for eye lens transparency. Nature. 1983 Mar 31;302(5907):415-7.

49. Turrens JF. Mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species. J Physiol. 2003 Oct 15;552(Pt 2):335-44.

50. Truscott RJ. Age-related nuclear cataract: a lens transport problem. Ophthalmic Res. 2000 Sep;32(5):185-94.

51. Heiba IM, Elston RC et al. Evidence for a major gene for cortical cataract. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995 Jan;36(1):227-35.

52. Merriam JC. The concentration of light in the human lens. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 1996;94:803-918.

53. Tsai SY, Hsu WM et al. Epidemiologic study of age-related cataracts among an elderly Chinese population in Shih-Pai, Taiwan. Ophthalmology. 2003 Jun;110(6):1089-95.

54. Worgul BV, Medvedovsky C et al. Cataractogenesis in the X-irradiated rabbit eye. Curr Eye Res. 1981;1(5):275-80.

55. Helbig H, Hinz JP et al. Oxygen in the anterior chamber of the human eye. Ger J Ophthalmol. 1993 May;2(3):161-4.

56. Winkler BS, Riley MV. Relative contributions of epithelial cells and fibers to rabbit lens ATP content and glycolysis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1991 Aug;32(9):2593-8.

57. Reddy VN. Glutathione and its function in the lens—an overview. Exp Eye Res. 1990 Jun;50(6):771-8.

58. Reddan JR, Giblin FJ et al. Protection from oxidative insult in glutathione depleted lens epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res. 1999 Jan;68(1):117-27.

59. Kannan R, Yi JR et al. Molecular characterization of a reduced glutathione transporter in the lens. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1995 Aug;36(9):1785-92.

60. Tsukaguchi H, Tokui T et al. A family of mammalian Na+-dependent L-ascorbic acid transporters. Nature. 1999 May 6;399(6731):70-5.

61. Winkler BS, Orselli SM et al. The redox couple between glutathione and ascorbic acid: a chemical and physiological perspective. Free Radic Biol Med. 1994 Oct;17(4):333-49.

62. Wegener A. Cataract prevention. Therapeutic approaches and critical review of current status. Ophthalmologe. 2003 Mar;100(3):176-80 (in German).

63. Hartford Hospital Eye Institute website. Cataract surgery page available at: http://www.harthosp.org/eyes/procedures. Accessed 2004.

64. Christen WG. Antioxidant vitamins and age-related eye disease. Proc Assoc Am Physicians. 1999 Jan;111(1):16-21.

65. Brown L, Rimm EB et al. A prospective study of carotenoid intake and risk of cataract extraction in US men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Oct;70(4):517-24.

66. Kaluzny J. Antioxidants for prophylaxis of eye diseases. Klin Oczna. 1996 Feb;98(2):141-3 (in Polish).

67. Bunin AI, Filina AA et al. A glutathione deficiency in open-angle glaucoma and the approaches to its correction. Vestn Oftalmol. 1992 Jul;108(4-6):13-5 (in Russian).

68. Head KA. Natural therapies for ocular disorders, part two: Cataracts and glaucoma. Altern Med Rev. 2001 Apr;6(2):141-66.

69. Reiss GR, Werness PG et al. Ascorbic acid levels in the aqueous humor of nocturnal and diurnal mammals. Arch Ophthalmol. 1986 May;104(5):753-5.

70. Augusteyn R. Protein modification in cataract. In: Duncan G Ed. Mechanisms of Cataract Formation in the Human Lens. London: Academic Press; 1981:72-115.

71. Kern HL, Zolot SL. Transport of vitamin C in the lens. Curr Eye Res. 1987 Jul;6(7):885-96.

72. DiMattio J. Decreased ascorbic acid entry into cornea of streptozotocin-diabetic rats and guinea-pigs. Exp Eye Res . 1992 Aug;55(2):337-44.

73. Reddy VN, Giblin FJ et al. The effect of aqueous humor ascorbate on ultraviolet-B-induced DNA damage in lens epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1998 Feb;39(2):344-50.

74. Varma SD, Kumar S et al. Light-induced damage to ocular lens cation pump: prevention by vitamin C. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Jul;76(7):3504-6.

75. Head KA. Natural therapies for ocular disorders, part one: diseases of the retina. Altern Med Rev. 1999 Oct;4(5):342-59.

76. Hirano H, Obara Y et al. Effects of ultraviolet B irradiation on lenticular riboflavin metabolism and high-molecular-weight-protein aggregation. Ophthalmic Res. 1990;22(3):183-6.

77. Mares-Perlman JA, Lyle BJ et al. Vitamin supplement use and incident cataracts in a population-based study. Arch Ophthalmol. 2000 Nov;118(11):1556-63.

78. Maitra I, Serbinova E et al. Stereospecific effects of R-lipoic acid on uthionine sulfoximine-induced cataract formation in newborn rats. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996 Apr 16;221(2):422-9

79. Zhao C, Shichi H. Prevention of acetaminophen-induced cataract by a combination of diallyl disulfide and N-acetylcysteine. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 1998 Aug;14(4):345-55.

80. Pizzorno JN, Murray M Eds. Textbook of Natural Medicine, Second Edition.

81. Abe M, Reiter RJ et al. Inhibitory effect of melatonin on cataract formation in newborn rats: evidence for an antioxidative role for melatonin. J Pineal Res. 1994 Sep;17(2):94-100.

82. Jain AK, Lim G et al. Effect of high-glucose levels on protein oxidation in cultured lens cells, and in crystalline and albumin solution and its inhibition by vitamin B6 and N-acetylcysteine: its possible relevance to cataractformation in diabetes. Free Radic Biol Med. 2002 Dec 15;33(12):1615-21

83. Feher J, Papale A et al. Mitotropic compounds for the treatment of age-related macular degeneration. The metabolic approach and a pilot study. Ophthalmologica. 2003 Sep;217(5):351-7.

84. Swamy-Mruthinti S, Carter AL. Acetyl-L-carnitine decreases glycation of lens proteins: in vitro studies. Exp Eye Res. 1999 Jul;69(1):109-15.

85. Swamy-Mruthinti S, Green K et al. Inhibition of cataracts in moderately diabetic rats by aminoguanidine. Exp Eye Res. 1996 May;62(5):505-10.

86. Matsuda H, Morikawa T et al. Structural requirements of flavonoids and related compounds for aldose reductase inhibitory activity. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2002 Jun;50(6):788-95.

87. Thiagarajan G, Chandani S et al. Molecular and cellular assessment of ginkgo biloba extract as a possible ophthalmic drug. Exp Eye Res. 2002 Oct;75(4):421-30.

88. Ramakrishnan S, Sulochana KN et al. Two new functions of inositol in the eye lens: antioxidation and antiglycation and possible mechanisms. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 1999 Apr;36(2):129-33.

89. Raj DG, Ramakrishnan S et al. Myoinositol and peroxidation—an in vitro study on human cataractous lens and human erythrocytes. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 1995 Apr;32(2):109-11.

90. Hipkiss AR, Brownson C. Carnosine reacts with protein carbonyl groups: another possible role for the anti-ageing peptide? Biogerontology. 2000;1(3):217-23.

91. Hipkiss AR. Carnosine and protein carbonyl groups: a possible relationship. Biochemistry (Mosc ). 2000 Jul;65(7):771-8.

92. Wang AM, Ma C et al. Use of carnosine as a natural anti-senescence drug for human beings. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2000 Jul;65(7):869-71.

93. Schalch W. Carotenoids in the retina—a review of their possible role in preventing or limiting damage caused by light and oxygen. EXS. 1992;62:280-98.

94. Ciulla TA, Curran-Celantano J et al. Macular pigment optical density in a midwestern sample. Ophthalmology. 2001 Apr;108(4):730-7.

95. Sommerburg O, Keunen JE et al. Fruits and vegetables that are sources for lutein and zeaxanthin: the macular pigment in human eyes. Br J Ophthalmol. 1998 Aug;82(8):907-10.

96. Blasi MA, Bovina C et al. Does coenzyme Q10 play a role in opposing oxidative stress in patients with age-related macular degeneration? Ophthalmologica. 2001 Jan;215(1):51-4.

97. Lenaz G, D'Aurelio M et al. Mitochondrial bioenergetics in aging. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Aug 15;1459(2-3):397-404.

98. Dilsiz N, Olcucu A et al. Determination of calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium concentrations in human senile cataractous lenses. Cell Biochem Funct. 2000 Dec;18(4):259-62.

99. Garner B, Davies MJ et al. Formation of hydroxyl radicals in the human lens is related to the severity of nuclear cataract. Exp Eye Res. 2000 Jan;70(1):81-8.

100. Kaluzny JJ, Kaluzny J. Contemporary views on the pathogenesis and possible prophylaxis of age related cataracts. Pol Merkuriusz Lek. 1997 Jan;2(7):76-8 (in Polish).

101. Bantseev V, Bhardwaj R et al. Antioxidants and cataract: cataract induction in space environment and application to terrestrial aging cataract. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1997 Sep;42(6):1189-97.

102. Pau H, Graf P et al. Glutathione levels in human lens: regional distribution in different forms of cataract. Exp Eye Res. 1990 Jan;50(1):17-20.

103. Tessier F, Moreaux V et al. Decrease in vitamin C concentration in human lenses during cataract progression. Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1998;68(5):309-15.

104. Brubaker RF, Bourne WM et al. Ascorbic acid content of human corneal epithelium. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000 Jun;41(7):1681-3.

105. Brownlee M. Negative consequences of glycation. Metabolism. 2000 Feb;49(2 Suppl 1):9-13.

106. Kushi LH, Lenart EB et al. Health implications of Mediterranean diets in light of contemporary knowledge. 2. Meat, wine, fats, and oils. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Jun;61(6 Suppl):1416S-27S.

107. Chung HS, Harris A et al. Ginkgo biloba extract increases ocular blood flow velocity. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 1999 Jun; 15(3): 233-40.

To see a list of all supplements, please check our Index or use our Search feature.

If you have any questions, please contact us at info@lifeextensionvitamins.com, 1-510-527-3005 or 1-888-771-3905.

Free Shipping in the Continental U.S. on Orders over $50
The statements made here have not been evaluated by the FDA. The foregoing statements are based upon sound and reliable studies, and are meant for informational purposes. Consult with your medical practitioner to determine the underlying cause of your symptoms. Please always check your purchase for possible allergins and correct dosage on the bottle before use.

While we work to ensure that product information is correct, on occasion manufacturers may alter their ingredient lists. Actual product packaging and materials may contain more and/or different information than that shown on our Web site. We recommend that you do not solely rely on the information presented and that you always read labels, warnings, and directions before using or consuming a product. For additional information about a product, please contact the manufacturer. Content on this site is for reference purposes and is not intended to substitute for advice given by a physician, pharmacist, or other licensed health-care professional. You should not use this information as self-diagnosis or for treating a health problem or disease. Contact your health-care provider immediately if you suspect that you have a medical problem. Information and statements regarding dietary supplements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition. Life Ex Online assumes no liability for inaccuracies or misstatements about products.