~ 022012 Reducing Calories Reduces Memory Loss - But What About Those Sugar Cravings? - References


1. Bjornholt JV, Erikssen G, Aaser E, et al. Fasting blood glucose: an underestimated risk factor for cardiovascular death. Results from a 22-year follow-up of healthy nondiabetic men. Diabetes Care. 1999 Jan;22(1):45-9.

2. Walford RL, Harris SB, Gunion MW. The calorically restricted low-fat nutrient-dense diet in Biosphere 2 significantly lowers blood glucose, total leukocyte count, cholesterol, and blood pressure in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Dec 1;89(23):11533-7.

3. Lucas CP, Boldrin MN, Reaven GM. Effect of orlistat added to diet (30% of calories from fat) on plasma lipids, glucose, and insulin in obese patients with hypercholesterolemia. Am J Cardiol. 2003 Apr 15;91(8):961-4.

4. Behall KM, Scholfield DJ, Hallfrisch JG, Liljeberg-Elmståhl HG. Consumption of both resistant starch and beta-glucan improves postprandial plasma glucose and insulin in women. Diabetes Care. 2006 May;29(5):976-81.

5. Sood N, Baker WL, Coleman CI. Effect of glucomannan on plasma lipid and glucose concentrations, body weight, and blood pressure: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Oct;88(4):1167-75.

6. Ngondi JL, Oben JE, Minka SR. The effect of Irvingia gabonensis seeds on body weight and blood lipids of obese subjects in Cameroon. Lipids Health Dis. 2005 May 25;4:12.

7. Anderson JW, Allgood LD, Turner J, Oeltgen PR, Daggy BP. Effects of psyllium on glucose and serum lipid responses in men with type 2 diabetes and hypercholesterolemia. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Oct;70(4):466-73.

8. Nizami F, Farooqui MS, Munir SM, Rizvi TJ. Effect of fiber bread on the management of diabetes mellitus. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2004 Nov;14(11):673-6.

9. Hanefeld M, Cagatay M, Petrowitsch T, Neuser D, Petzinna D, Rupp M. Acarbose reduces the risk for myocardial infarction in type 2 diabetic patients: meta-analysis of seven long-term studies. Eur Heart J. 2004 Jan;25(1):10-6.

10. Udani J, Hardy M, Madsen DC. Blocking carbohydrate absorption and weight loss: a clinical trial using Phase 2 brand proprietary fractionated white bean extract. Altern Med Rev. 2004 Mar;9(1):63-9.

11. Derosa G, Maffioli P, Ferrari I, et al. Acarbose actions on insulin resistance and inflammatory parameters during an oral fat load. Eur J Pharmacol. 2011 Jan 25;651(1-3):240-50.

12. Zeymer U. Cardiovascular benefits of acarbose in impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. Int J Cardiol. 2006 Feb 8;107 (1):11-20.

13. Oyama T, Saiki A, Endoh K, et al. Effect of acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, on serum lipoprotein lipase mass levels and common carotid artery intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetes mellitus treated by sulfonylurea. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2008 Jun;15(3):154-9.

14. Vasdev S, Gill V, Singal P. Role of advanced glycation end products in hypertension and atherosclerosis: therapeutic implications. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2007;49(1):48-63.

15. Evans JM, Donnelly LA, Emslie-Smith AM, Alessi DR, Morris AD. Metformin and reduced risk of cancer in diabetic patients. BMJ. 2005 Jun 4;330(7503):1304-5.

16. Wu WT, Chen HL. Effects of konjac glucomannan on putative risk factors for colon carcinogenesis in rats fed a high-fat diet. J Agric Food Chem. 2011 Feb 9;59(3):989-94.

17. Bravi F, Edefonti V, Bosetti C, et al. Nutrient dietary patterns and the risk of colorectal cancer: a case-control study from Italy. Cancer Causes Control. 2010 Nov;21(11):1911-8.

18. Zhang ZJ, Zheng ZJ, Kan H, et al. Reduced risk of colorectal cancer with metformin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis. Diabetes Care. 2011 Oct;34(10):2323-8.

19. Whitmer RA, Karter AJ, Yaffe K, Quesenberry CP Jr, Selby JV. Hypoglycemic episodes and risk of dementia in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 2009 Apr 15;301(15):1565-72.

20. Yaffe K, Blackwell T, Whitmer RA, Krueger K, Barrett Connor E. Glycosylated hemoglobin level and development of mild cognitive impairment or dementia in older women. J Nutr Health Aging. 2006 Jul-Aug;10(4):293-5.

21. Xu W, Qiu C, Winblad B, Fratiglioni L. The effect of borderline diabetes on the risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Diabetes. 2007 Jan;56(1):211-6.

22. Hsu CC, Wahlqvist ML, Lee MS, Tsai HN. Incidence of dementia is increased in type 2 diabetes and reduced by the use of sulfonylureas and metformin. J Alzheimers Dis. 2011;24(3):485-93.

23. Luchsinger JA. Type 2 diabetes, related conditions, in relation and dementia: an opportunity for prevention? J Alzheimers Dis. 2010;20(3):723-36.

24. Nagendran MV. Effect of Green Coffee Bean Extract (GCE), High in Chlorogenic Acids, on Glucose Metabolism. Poster presentation number: 45-LB-P. Obesity 2011, the 29th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Obesity Society. Orlando, Florida. October 1-5, 2011.

25. McCarty MF. Glucomannan minimizes the postprandial insulin surge: a potential adjuvant for hepatothermic therapy. Med Hypotheses. 2002 Jun;58(6):487-90.

26. Vuksan V, Jenkins DJ, Spadafora P, et al. Konjac-mannan (glucomannan) improves glycemia and other associated risk factors for coronary heart disease in type 2 diabetes. A randomized controlled metabolic trial. Diabetes Care. 1999 Jun;22(6):913-9.

27. Gonzalez Canga A, Fernández Martínez N, Sahagún AM, et al. Glucomannan: properties and therapeutic applications. Nutr Hosp. 2004 Jan-Feb;19(1):45-50.

28. Celleno L, Tolaini MV, D’Amore A, Perricone NV, Preuss HG. A dietary supplement containing standardized Phaseolus vulgaris extract influences body composition of overweight men and women. Int J Med Sci. 2007 Jan 24;4(1):45-52.

29. Oben JE, Ngondi JL, Momo CN, Agbor GA, Sobgui CS. The use of a Cissus quadrangularis/Irvingia gabonensis combination in the management of weight loss: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Lipids Health Dis. 2008 Mar 31;7:12.

30. Ngondi JL, Etoundi BC, Nyangono CB, Mbofung CM, Oben JE. IGOB131, a novel seed extract of the West African plant Irvingia gabonensis, significantly reduces body weight and improves metabolic parameters in overweight humans in a randomized double-blind placebo controlled investigation. Lipids Health Dis. 2009 Mar 2;8:7.

31. Oben JE, Ngondi JL, Blum K. Inhibition of Irvingia gabonensis seed extract (OB131) on adipogenesis as mediated via down regulation of the PPARgamma and leptin genes and up-regulation of the adiponectin gene. Lipids Health Dis. 2008 Nov 13;7:44.

32. Juhel C, Armand M, Pafumi Y, Rosier C, Vandermander J, Lairon D. Green tea extract (AR25) inhibits lipolysis of triglycerides in gastric and duodenal medium in vitro. J Nutr Biochem. 2000 Jan;11(1):45-51.

33. Bose M, Lambert JD, Ju J, Reuhl KR, Shapses SA, Yang CS. The major green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, inhibits obesity, metabolic syndrome, and fatty liver disease in high-fat-fed mice. J Nutr. 2008 Sep;138(9):1677-83.

34. Preuss HG, Echard B, Bagchi D, Stohs S. Inhibition by natural dietary substances of gastrointestinal absorption of starch and sucrose in rats and pigs: 1. Acute studies. Int J Med Sci. 2007 Aug 6;4(4):196-202.

35. Available at: http://www.naturalproductsinsider.com/news/2011/10/insea2-studies-accepted-for-publication.aspx. Accessed November 7, 2011.

36. Available at: http://www.naturalproductsinsider.com/news/2009/12/insea2-reduces-glycemic-response.aspx#. Accessed October 28, 2011.

37. Zhang J, Tiller C, Shen J, et al. Antidiabetic properties of polysaccharide- and polyphenolic-enriched fractions from the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007 Nov;85(11):1116-23.

38. Lamela M, Anca J, Villar R, Otero J, Calleja JM. Hypoglycemic activity of several seaweed extracts. J Ethnopharmacol. 1989 Nov;27(1-2):35-43.

39. Hlebowicz J, Darwiche G, Bjorgell O, Almer LO. Effect of cinnamon on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying, and satiety in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jun;85(6):1552-6.

40. Qin B, Nagasaki M, Ren M, Bajotto G, Oshida Y, Sato Y. Cinnamon extract prevents the insulin resistance induced by a high-fructose diet. Horm Metab Res. 2004 Feb;36(2):119-25.

41. Khan A, Safdar M, Muzaffar Ali Khan M, Nawak Khattak K, Anderson RA. Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003 Dec;26(12):3215-8.

42. Broadhurst CL, Polansky MM, Anderson RA. Insulin-like biological activity of culinary and medicinal plant aqueous extracts in vitro. J Agric Food Chem. 2000 Mar;48(3):849-52.

43. Anisimov VN, Berstein LM, Egormin PA, et al. Metformin slows down aging and extends life span of female SHR mice. Cell Cycle. 2008 Sep 1;7(17):2769-73.

44. Onken B, Driscoll M. Metformin induces a dietary restriction-like state and the oxidative stress response to extend C. elegans Healthspan via AMPK, LKB1, and SKN-1. PLoS One. 2010 Jan 18;5(1):e8758.

45. Fontbonne A., Charles MA, Juhan-Vague I, et al. The effect of metformin on the metabolic abnormalities associated with upper body fat distribution. Results of the BIGPRO 1 trial. Diabetes Care. 1996 Sept; 19:920-6.

46. Guthrie R. Treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with metformin. J Am Board Fam Pract. 1997 May-Jun;10(3):213-21.

47. Paolisso G, Amato L, Eccellente R, et al. Effect of metformin on food intake in obese subjects. Eur J Clin Invest. 1998 Jun;28(6):441-6.

48. Emral R, Koseoglulari O, Tonyukuk V, Uysal AR, Kamel N, Corapcioglu D. The effect of short-term glycemic regulation with gliclazide and metformin on postprandial lipemia. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2005 Feb;113(2):80-4.

49. Lund SS, Tarnow L, Frandsen M, et al. Impact of metformin versus the prandial insulin secretagogue, repaglinide, onfasting and postprandial glucose and lipid responses in non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Eur J Endocrinol. 2008 Jan;158(1):35-46.

50. Hollenbeck CB, Johnston P, Varasteh BB, Chen YD, Reaven GM. Effects of metformin on glucose, insulin and lipid metabolism in patients with mild hypertriglyceridaemia and non-insulin dependent diabetes by glucose tolerance test criteria. Diabete Metab. 1991 Sep-Oct;17(5):483-9.

51. Carlsen SM, Følling I, Grill V, Bjerve KS, Schneede J, Refsum H. Metformin increases total serum homocysteine levels in non-diabetic male patients with coronary heart disease. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 1997 Oct;57(6):521-7.

52. Davidson MB, Peters AL. An overview of metformin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Med. 1997 Jan;102(1):99-110.

53. Wilcock C, Bailey CJ. Reconsideration of inhibitory effect of metformin on intestinal glucose absorption. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1991 Feb;43(2):120-1.

54. Ikeda T, Iwata K, Murakami H. Inhibitory effect of metformin on intestinal glucose absorption in the perfused rat intestine. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Apr 1;59(7):887-90.

55. Lee A, Morley JE. Metformin decreases food consumption and induces weight loss in subjects with obesity with type II non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Obes Res. 1998 Jan;6(1):47-53.

56. McCarty MF. A proposal for the locus of metformin’s clinical action: potentiation of the activation of pyruvate kinase by fructose-1,6-diphosphate. Med Hypotheses. 1999 Feb;52(2):89-93.

57. Moon RJ. The addition of metformin in type 1 diabetes improves insulin sensitivity, diabetic control, body composition and patient well-being. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007 Jan;9(1):143-5.

58. Sir T, Castillo T, Munoz S, Lopez G, Calvillan M. Effects of metformin on insulin resistance in obese and hyperandrogenic women. Rev Med Chil. 1997 Dec;125(12):1457-63.

59. Giugliano D, De Rosa N, Di Maro G, et al. Metformin improves glucose, lipid metabolism, and reduces blood pressure in hypertensive, obese women. Diabetes Care. 1993 Oct;16(10):1387-90.

60. Saenz A, Fernandez-Esteban I, Mataix A, Ausejo M, Roque M, Moher D. Metformin monotherapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2005 Jul 20;(3):CD002966.

61. Wiernsperger NF, Bailey CJ. The antihyperglycaemic effect of metformin: therapeutic and cellular mechanisms. Drugs. 1999;58 Suppl 1:31-9; discussion 75-82.

62. Mithieux G, Guignot L, Bordet JC, Wiernsperger N. Intrahepatic mechanisms underlying the effect of metformin in decreasing basal glucose production in rats fed a high-fat diet. Diabetes. 2002 Jan;51(1):139-43.

63. Davidson MB, Peters AL. An overview of metformin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Med. 1997 Jan;102(1):99-110.

64. Hundal RS, Krssak M, Dufour S, et al. Mechanism by which metformin reduces glucose production in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes. 2000 Dec;49(12):2063-9.

65. Otto M, Breinholt J, Westergaard N. Metformin inhibits glycogen synthesis and gluconeogenesis in cultured rat hepatocytes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2003 May;5(3):189-94.

66. Dhatariya K, Bigelow ML, Nair KS. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone replacement on insulin sensitivity and lipids in hypoadrenal women. Diabetes. 2005 Mar;54(3):765-9.

67. Villareal DT, Holloszy JO. Effect of DHEA on abdominal fat and insulin action in elderly women and men: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2004 Nov 10;292(18):2243-8.

68. Boudou P, Sobngwi E, Ibrahim F, et al. Hyperglycaemia acutely decreases circulating dehydroepiandrosterone levels in healthy men. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2006 Jan;64(1):46-52.

69. Diamond P, Cusan L, Gomez JL, Bélanger A, Labrie F. Metabolic effects of 12-month percutaneous dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. J Endocrinol. 1996 Sep;150 Suppl:S43-50.

70. Yamashita R, Saito T, Satoh S, Aoki K, Kaburagi Y, Sekihara H. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone on gluconeogenic enzymes and glucose uptake in human hepatoma cell line, HepG2. Endocr J. 2005 Dec;52(6):727-33.

71. Kapoor D, Malkin CJ, Channer KS, Jones TH. Androgens, insulin resistance and vascular disease in men. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005 Sep;63(3):239-50.

72. Faloon W. Physician’s guide: Using blood tests to safely induce weight loss. Life Extension Magazine®. 2009 Jun;15(6):42-63.

73. Bain J. The many faces of testosterone. Clin Interv Aging. 2007; 2(4):567-76.

74. Kupelian V, Page ST, Araujo AB, Travison TG, Bremner WJ, McKinlay JB. Low sex hormone-binding globulin, total testosterone, and symptomatic androgen deficiency are associated with development of the metabolic syndrome in nonobese men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Mar;91(3):843-50.

75. Traish AM, Saad F, Guay AT. The dark side of testosterone deficiency: II. Type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance. J Androl. 2009 Jan-Feb;30(1):23-32.

76. Lefevre M, Redman LM, Heilbronn LK, et al. Caloric restriction alone and with exercise improves CVD risk in healthy non-obese individuals. Atherosclerosis. 2009 Mar;203(1):206-13.

77. Paniagua JA, de la Sacristana AG, Sánchez E, et al. A MUFA-rich diet improves posprandial glucose, lipid and GLP-1 responses in insulin-resistant subjects. J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Oct;26(5):434-44.

78. Tzima N, Pitsavos C, Panagiotakos DB, et al. Mediterranean diet and insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and blood pressure levels, in overweight and obese people; the Attica study. Lipids Health Dis. 2007 Sep 19;6:22.

79. Chrysohoou C, Panagiotakos DB, Pitsavos C, Das UN, Stefanadis C. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet attenuates inflammation and coagulation process in healthy adults: The ATTICA Study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2004 Jul 7;44(1):152-8.

80. Gaby AR. Adverse effects of dietary fructose. Altern Med Rev. 2005 Dec;10(4):294-306.

81. Hallfrisch J, Ellwood KC, Michaelis OE 4th, Reiser S, O’Dorisio TM, Prather ES. Effects of dietary fructose on plasma glucose and hormone responses in normal and hyperinsulinemic men. J Nutr. 1983 Sep;113(9):1819-26.

82. Tokita Y, Hirayama Y, Sekikawa A, et al. Fructose ingestion enhances atherosclerosis and deposition of advanced glycated end-products in cholesterol-fed rabbits. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2005;12(5):260-7.

83. Beck-Nielsen H, Pedersen O, Lindskov HO. Impaired cellular insulin binding and insulin sensitivity induced by high-fructose feeding in normal subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1980 Feb;33(2):273-8.

84. McPherson JD, Shilton BH, Walton DJ. Role of fructose in glycation and cross-linking of proteins. Biochemistry. 1988 Mar 22;27(6):1901-7.

85. Van Wymelbeke V, Beridot-Therond ME, de La Gueronniere V, Fantino M. Influence of repeated consumption of beverages containing sucrose or intense sweeteners on food intake. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2004 Jan;58(1):154-61.

86. Palmer JR, Boggs DA, Krishnan S, Hu FB, Singer M, Rosenberg L. Sugar-sweetened beverages and incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in African American women. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Jul 28;168(14):1487-92.

87. Yudkin J, Eisa O. Dietary sucrose and oestradiol concentration in young men. Ann Nutr Metab. 1988;32(2):53-5.

88. Tjaderhane L, Larmas M. A high sucrose diet decreases the mechanical strength of bones in growing rats. J Nutr. 1998 Oct;128(10):1807-10.

89. Torronen R, Sarkkinen E, Tapola N, Hautaniemi E, Kilpi K, Niskanen L. Berries modify the postprandial plasma glucose response to sucrose in healthy subjects. Br J Nutr. 2010 Apr;103(8):1094-7.

90. Moeller SM, Fryhofer SA, Osbahr AJ 3rd, Robinowitz CB; Council on Science and Public Health, American Medical Association. The effects of high fructose syrup. J Am Coll Nutr. 2009 Dec;28(6): 619-26.

91. Angelopoulos TJ, Lowndes J, Zukley L, et al. The effect of high-fructose corn syrup consumption on triglycerides and uric acid. J Nutr. 2009 Jun;139(6):1242S-1245S.

92. Stanhope KL, Havel PJ. Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming beverages sweetened with fructose, glucose, sucrose, or high-fructose corn syrup. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88(6):1733S-1737S.

93. Forshee RA, Storey ML, Allison DB, et al. A critical examination of the evidence relating high fructose corn syrup and weight gain. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2007 47(6):561-82.

94. Ouyang X, Cirillo P, Sautin Y, et al. Fructose consumption as a risk factor for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. J Hepatol. 2008 Jun;48(6):993-9.

95. Willcox DC, Willcox BJ, Todoriki H, Suzuki M. The Okinawan diet: health implications of a low-calorie, nutrient-dense, antioxidant-rich dietary pattern low in glycemic load. J Am Coll Nutr. 2009 Aug;28 Suppl:500S-516S.

96. Brand-Miller J, McMillan-Price J, Steinbeck K, Caterson I. Dietary glycemic index: health implications. J Am Coll Nutr. 2009 Aug;28 Suppl:446S-449S.

Free Shipping in the Continental U.S. on Orders over $50
The statements made here have not been evaluated by the FDA. The foregoing statements are based upon sound and reliable studies, and are meant for informational purposes. Consult with your medical practitioner to determine the underlying cause of your symptoms. Please always check your purchase for possible allergins and correct dosage on the bottle before use.

While we work to ensure that product information is correct, on occasion manufacturers may alter their ingredient lists. Actual product packaging and materials may contain more and/or different information than that shown on our Web site. We recommend that you do not solely rely on the information presented and that you always read labels, warnings, and directions before using or consuming a product. For additional information about a product, please contact the manufacturer. Content on this site is for reference purposes and is not intended to substitute for advice given by a physician, pharmacist, or other licensed health-care professional. You should not use this information as self-diagnosis or for treating a health problem or disease. Contact your health-care provider immediately if you suspect that you have a medical problem. Information and statements regarding dietary supplements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration and are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease or health condition. Life Ex Online assumes no liability for inaccuracies or misstatements about products.